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Flashcards in Geology Deck (41):
1

Igneons

Rocks that come from lava and magma

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Magma

Magma is liquid rock that has not reached the surface

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Lava

A hot liquid that comes out of volcanoes

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Extrusive

Rocks that have exited out of the volcano

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Intrusive

Rocks or lava that stay in the volcano

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Mineral

It is a solid

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Lithosphere

The outer part of the earth considering the crust and the upper mantle

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Asthenosphere

The upper layer of the earth's mantle

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Crystal

A rock from volcanos

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Limestone

Limestone are sedimentary rock that is formed from deposits of the remains of sea organisms

11

Coal

A sedimentary rock formed from dead plants and animals that were buried before rotting completely

12

Sandstone

A sedimentary rock with medium-sized grains.

13

Siltstone

A sedimentary rock with a particle size between that of sandstone and mudstone

14

Mudstone

A fine-grained, sedimentary rock without layering

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Shale

A fine-grained sedimentary rock formed in layers by the consolidation of clay

16

Glaciers

Bodies of ice called

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Moraines

Deposit left by movement of a glacier

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Floodplains

Flat, open land beside a river where sediments are deposited during floods

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Erosion

The wearing away and removal of soil and rock by natural elements, such as wind, waves, rivers and ice, and by human activity

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Sedimentary rocks

Rocks that are formed from the particles of sediments

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Rock salt

A sedimentary deposit formed when a salt lake or seabed dried up

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Conglomerate

Sedimentary rock containing large particles of various sizes cemented together

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Metamorphic rocks

Rocks formed from another rock that has been under heat or pressure

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Metamorphism

The process that changes rocks by extreme pressure or heat

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Mineral ores

Rocks mined to obtain a metal or other chemical within them

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Mining

Extraction of natural resources from the Earth

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Overburden

Waste rock removed from below the topsoil

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Open-cut mining

Mining that finds out soil and rocks on the surface of the land

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Underground mining

Mining that uses shafts and tunnels to remove rock from deep below the surface

30

Stone Age

Was a prehistoric period during which stone was widely used.

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Alloy

A metal made by combining two or more metallic elements

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Flint

A piece of flint used with steel to produce an igniting spark

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Percussion flaking

A method of forming a flint tool by striking flakes from a stone core with another stone

34

Folding

The buckling of rocks. It is caused when rocks are under pressure from both sides.

35

Paleontologists

A scientist who studies fossils

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Relative age

The age of a rock compared to another rock

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Carnivores

Animal that eats other animals

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Scavengers

Animals that eat dead plant and animal material

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Mould

A cavity in a rock that shows the shape of the hard parts of an organism

40

Trace fossils

fossils that provide evidence, such as footprints

41

Extinct

It describes volcanoes that are no longer active