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Flashcards in Cells and organelles Deck (21):
1

What is the scales of eukaryotic cells?

10-100um, nanoliters

2

What are cell membranes made of?

Lipid bilayer made of phopholipid

3

What are structures in cells called? Are they in prokaryotes?

Organelles, which usually have a single bilayer. prokaryotes dont usually have ogranelles

4

What are the 6 most important organelles? What are their roles?

Nucleus-store DNA, make RNA, ribosomes
ER-SER lipid biosynthesis , RER - ribosomes on it-site of final foldig (S-S bonds), modification and sorting to golgi
Golgi- Cis medial and Trans- lieu of post translational modif and sorting to other organelles
Ribosome-not an organelle but place of protein synthesis in cytosol and near ER
Mitochondria-place of TCA and OxPhos-double layered
Lysosome-degradation of enzymes and some biocomponents

5

What molecules are found in a cell?

DNA, RNA, protein, nucleotides organelles, K+ (ions), signals, sugars, amino acids, lipids,

6

What can be found outside a cell?

ECM (fibrillar collagen, elastin, fibrilin, laminin, agreggan etc and ECF (Ca2+ (ions), soluble protsn sugars, vitamins, aa, hormones, nucleotides, lipids, lymph, plasma, saliva, etc)

7

What are the 3 components of the cytoskeleton?

Microtubules (inside cyto/highway), Intermediate filaments and microfilaments (actin)

8

What are the key differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

No orgnanelles, circular DNA, usually smaller, single cell organisms, 70S ribosome

9

What are the key cancer mutations?

Increase of prolif, decrease of apoptosis, ability to avoid immunity, ability ot move tissue, loss of DNA repair

10

List the main functions of the blood

transport, heat distribution, immunity, haemostasis, homeostasis, connective tissue, maintain haemostasis

11

Explain the importance, basic structure and role of haemoglobin

Importance: carries 02 from lungs to tissue in erythrocytes
Basic struct: 2a 2b chains with an fe2+ group in the center-cooperative binding
Role-uptake of 02 cooperativly and CO2 as well

12

Explain the basic features of erythrocytes

Biconcave disc, with no organelles, very flexible and surface antigens provide blood group. Start as reticulocytes (with organelles) and mature to ose them. Live 120 days and are removed in reticulo-enothelial system

13

How is RBC production regulated

in low O2, and sufficient fe2+, kindey produce haematopoetin which tells BMSC to produce more RBC

14

What is aneamia?

a deficiency of RBC or haemoglobin

15

What are 4 key RBC parameters?

RBC conc, RBC count, heamatocrit (packed volume) and Mean cellular volume (MCV

16

What 3 types of aneamia are there? what are the causes?

Microcytic-small MCV, due to prolonged bleeding (periods, internal hemmoragy, cancer)
Normacytic-normal MCV-acute Bleeding
Macrocytic-lack of B12/folic acid to finish maturation-usually pregnancies or vegans

17

What are the main functions of Leukocytes?

Polymorphonuclear granulocytes-first oen to the site
Neutrophil-phagocytosis
Basophils-produce heparin
Eosinophils-allergies, cancer and parasites
Leukocytes -T and B cells
Monocytes-become macrophages and help repair tissue/eat up debris

18

Key feature and role of B lymphocyte

Mature in BM, part of hummoral response. Make Immunoglobulin in response to antigen-opsionise, aglutinate, precipitate or neutralise. Secondary response usually faster

19

Key features and role of T lymphocytes

Mature in thymus-when presented with AG-blast transfomation and become active. Can make chemotaxins (attract maco), lymphtoxin (kills cells) and interferons (kill viruses)

20

Key features and role of platelets

From megakaryocytes, small. Short life span, many organelles but no nucleus. HAve surface receptors for collagen or thrombin which releases granules-incresase thrombin cascade. Aspirin inhibites cyclogenase

21

What is plasma?

Fluid of blood (all inorganic and water)-proteins to maintain blood pressure and volume, albumin and glubulin carry insoluble molecules, fibrinogen can help clotting)