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Flashcards in Cells and Problems Deck (44)
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1

Expresses Foxp3 and CD25 and secretes IL-10. Deficient in the monogenic autoimmune disease known as IPEX (immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome)

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

T-reg cells

2

In the immature form these cells are adapted for recognition and uptake of pathogens. Maturation is associated with expression of CCR7, migration to lymph nodes and enhanced capacity for antigen presentation.

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

Dendritic cells

3

These cells can be rapidly mobilised from bone marrow. They express pathogen recognition receptors and Fc receptors and are able to engage in oxidative and non-oxidative killing. They do not express HLA class II molecules and so do not activate CD4 T cells. They are the predominant cell type in synovial fluid taken from patients with gout,

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

Neutrophils

4

These cells may be formed following a germinal centre reaction involving isotype switching and affinity maturation of receptors. They are long-lived and reside in bone marrow.

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

Plasma cells

5

These cells express CD3 and secrete IL-17 and IL-22. They are thought to be important in some auto-immune conditions including rheumatoid arthritis.

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

Th17 cells

6

These cells may be resident in peripheral tissues (eg Kupffer cells in liver, microglia in neural tissue) express pathogen recognition receptors and Fc receptors and are able to engage in oxidative and non-oxidative killing. They are an important source of cytokines such as IL-1 and TNF-alpha and are thought to play an important role in some auto-inflammatory and auto-immune diseases.

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

Macrophages

7

The normal function of these cells is to express cytokines in response to recognition of specific peptides presented by HLA class II molecules. Depletion of these cells during HIV infection is an important factor in development of AIDS.

1. Th17 cell
2. Macrophage
3. Epithelial cell
4. T reg cell
5. Dendritic cell
6. CD4+ T cell
7. Neutrophil
8. Th1 cell
9. Plasma cell
10. Megakaryocyte
11. Lymphocyte

CD4+ T-cells

8

Play a role in protective immunity against HIV infection by killing virus infected cells via perforin and FAS.

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

CD8 T-cells

9

Acts as a co-receptor for HIV entry to cells

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

CCR5

10

Serves to generate complementary DNA from RNA, which can then be integrated into host cell genes

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

Reverse transcriptase

11

Directs homing of dendritic cells to lymph nodes

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

CCR7

12

Are often infected by HIV if they express CD4

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

Macrophages

13

Antibodies against this target are partially protective against HIV infection

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

GP120

14

Are effective in management of HIV infection if used in combination with other drugs

1. Gp120
2. Anti-metabolites
3. CCR5
4. Reverse transcriptase
5. Basophils
6. Gastric parietal cells
7. Protease inhibitors
8. CCR7
9. Macrophages
10. CD8 T cells
11.IL-8

Protease Inhibitors

15

Mutated MEFV - failure to regulate neutrophil function

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Familial Mediterranean Fever
IPEX
Crohn's
Ankylosing Spondylitis

Familial Mediterranean Fever

16

Polygenic autoinflammatory disease in which NOD2 (CARD15) mutations are common

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Familial Mediterranean Fever
IPEX
Crohn's
Ankylosing Spondylitis

Crohn's Disease

17

Mixed pattern disease with 90% heritability and strongly associated with HLA-B27

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Familial Mediterranean Fever
IPEX
Crohn's
Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis

18

Polygenic auto-immune disease associated with polymorphisms in PAD enzymes (which citrullinate proteins). Environmental factors including smoking and gum infection are associated with disease.

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Familial Mediterranean Fever
IPEX
Crohn's
Ankylosing Spondylitis

Rheumatoid Arthritis

19

Monogenic auto-immune disease due to a mutation in Foxp3

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Familial Mediterranean Fever
IPEX
Crohn's
Ankylosing Spondylitis

IPEX

20

Congenital heart block in infants of mothers with SLE

Anti-DNA
Anti-RNP
Anti-GAD
Anti-centromere
Anti-Ro

Anti-Ro

21

Lupus nephritis

Anti-DNA
Anti-RNP
Anti-GAD
Anti-centromere
Anti-Ro

Anti-DNA

22

Mixed connective tissue disease

Anti-DNA
Anti-RNP
Anti-GAD
Anti-centromere
Anti-Ro

Anti-RNP

23

Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis

Anti-DNA
Anti-RNP
Anti-GAD
Anti-centromere
Anti-Ro

Anti-centromere

24

Sjogren’s syndrome

Anti-DNA
Anti-RNP
Anti-GAD
Anti-centromere
Anti-Ro

Anti-Ro

25

Antibody to gastric parietal cells

Autoimmune hepatitis
Coeliac disease
Pernicious anaemia
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Primary biliary cirrhosis

Pernicious anaemia

26

Anti-smooth muscle antibody

Autoimmune hepatitis
Coeliac disease
Pernicious anaemia
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Primary biliary cirrhosis

Autoimmune hepatitis

27

Anti-endomysial antibody

Autoimmune hepatitis
Coeliac disease
Pernicious anaemia
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Primary biliary cirrhosis

Coeliac disease
Dermatitis herpetiformis

28

Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody

Autoimmune hepatitis
Coeliac disease
Pernicious anaemia
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Primary biliary cirrhosis

Coeliac disease
Dermatitis herpetiformis

29

Anti-mitochondrial antibody

Autoimmune hepatitis
Coeliac disease
Pernicious anaemia
Dermatitis herpetiformis
Primary biliary cirrhosis

Primary biliary cirrhosis

30

Mediated predominantly by antibodies which usually form after the transplantation

Hyperacute rejection
Acute cellular rejection
Acute vascular rejection
Chronic allograft rejection

Acute vascular rejection