Cells and Tissues of the Immune System Flashcards Preview

IAHI Block 1 > Cells and Tissues of the Immune System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cells and Tissues of the Immune System Deck (28):
1

Immunogen

An antigen that induces an immune response

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Antigen

A molecule that binds to (is recognized by) antibody or T cells

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Increased Immunogenicity vs Decreased Immunogenicity

- Large vs. Small (MW Intraperitoneal > Intravenous or Intragastric
- Multiple differences vs. Few differences
- Slow release vs. Rapid release

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Passive Immunity

Receiving preformed antibody
Rapid protection
Short Duration (T1/2 for about 3 wks)

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Active Immunity

Exposure to a foreign antigen
Slow Protection
Long Duration - memory lymphocytes

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Innate Receptors

Pattern-Recognition Receptors
- Toll like receptors, Nod-like receptors
- Limited diversity, non clonal expression

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Adaptive Receptors

Antigen Receptors
- T-Cell receptor
- B-Cell receptor
- Somatic recombination leads to great diversity

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Adaptive Memory

Clones of lymphocytes remain in the body and will recognize and respond to antigen more rapidly than the first, initiating exposure event

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Pros and Cons of T-Cell (cellular) response

Pros: Strong, life-long immunity
Cons: May revert to virulent form

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Pros and Cons of B-Cell (humoral) response

Pros: Stable and safer than Live (attenuated vaccine)
Cons: Weaker immunity - requires booster vaccine

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Live Attenuated Vaccine

Micro-organism is modified to decrease pathogenicity, limited growth after injection
Mainly induces T-Cells

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Inactivated Vaccine

Pathogen is inactivated but retains an immunologic epitope on surface
Mainly induces B-Cells

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WBC (4.0 - 10.0^3/μL) Differential

Neutrophils: 34-71%
Lymph: 19-53%
Mono: 5-12%
Eos: 0-7%
Baso: 0-1%

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Cells of the innate immune system

Phagocytes:
- Neutrophils
- Macrophages

Granulocytes:
- Eosinophils
- Basophils
- Mast Cells

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Cells Linking the Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems

Dendritic Cells
NK cells

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Cells of the adaptive immune system

Lymphocytes

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Monocyte/Macrophage

Circulate and enter tissue and differentiate into tissue macrophage, present in all tissues of the body

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Neutrophils morphology

Polymorphonuclear cells

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Eisonophils

Motile phagocyte important in parasite infection and allergy - granules contain heparin, hydrolytic enzymes

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Basophils

Non-phagocytic, circulate in blood - Release pharmacologically active immune mediators

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Mast Cells

From bone marrow and emigrate/ differentiate in tissue - Granules contain heparin and histamine
Important in allergic responses

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Dendritic Cells

Derived from the same bone marrow progenitor as monocytes and migrate and reside in tissues near site of microbe entry
- Primary function is as an Antigen Presenting Cell

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Natural Killer Cells

Large Granular lymphocytes which recognize foreign cells of many different antigenic types
Active without prior exposure to antigen
Active independent of antigen presentation
Specialize in killing of virus-infected cells and tumor cells

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Primary (Generative) Lymphoid Tissues

Bone Marrow: hematopoietic progenitors, lymphocyte development

Thymus: Development and maturation of T lymphocytes

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Secondary (Peripheral) lymphoid tissues

Lymph nodes
Spleen
Mucosal or Skin-Associated lymphatic tissues (Peyer's patches)

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Process of Antigen/Microbe Exposure

Pathogen gains entry into body through epithelium and then into the Dendritic cells
Dendritic cell changes which allows it to leave periphery of skin and move into a lymph node

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Peripheral Immune Tissues (Location of B and T Cells)

T Cell Zone = Periarterioolar lymphoid sheath in Central arteriole

B Cell Zone = Follicles in Marginal zone

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Peyer's Patch

Specialized Collections of lymphatic tissue in the ileum