Cellular Basis of Behavioural Illness Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Cellular Basis of Behavioural Illness > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cellular Basis of Behavioural Illness Deck (19)
1

What is catatonia?

Motor immobility as evidenced by catalepsy (including waxy flexibility) or stupor

Excessive motor activity (purposeless, not influenced by external stimuli)

Extreme negativism (motiveless resistance to all instructions or maintenance of a rigid posture against attempts to be moved) or mutism

Peculiarities of voluntary movement as evidenced by posturing, stereotyped movements, prominent mannerisms, or prominent grimacing

Echolalia or echopraxia

2

Which region of the brain is one of the last to show grey matter loss?

Frontal

3

In what order does cortical grey matter thinning occur?

Posterior regions first, prefrontal and lateral temporal later

4

What role do synapses play in schizophrenia?

It is suggested that in schizophrenia and other disorders in childhood and adolescence, there is a problem with synaptic formation or pruning

5

What happens to grey matter in the frontal cortex throughout adolescence?

It is lost

6

What is the final phase of synaptogenesis?

Synaptic pruning

occurs early in sensory cortex

Late in frontal cortex 

7

What happens to synaptic spine density of pyramidal cells across development?

Decrease

Dendritic spine density is 2-3 x greater in children compared with adults, and

Begins to decrease during puberty

synaptic overproduction and elimination continues beyond adolescence and throughout 3rd decade, before stabilising

8

What happens to anatomical connectivity during development?

↓Neuronal size

↓ neuronal connections (dendrites & synapses; ↓ connections between thalamus & cortex; ↓ synapsin, ↓ gap43, ↓connexins)

 

9

What regulates the cell skeleton?

Wnt

10

How are human protoplasmic astrocytes different compared to rodents?

Almost 3-fold greater in diameter

10 fold more abundant GFAP-defined processes

 

11

What happens to glial density and neuronal size in shizophrenia?

Decreases

12

What happens to neuron size in the DLPFC in schizophrenia?

Decreases (~20%)

13

What is OCD behaviour linked to?

Microglia

Hoxb8 mutants have behaviour similar to OCD, can be rescued by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow

14

What microglia abnormalities are seen in autism?

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a region of peak early overgrowth

Grey and white matter both affected

Enlargement does not persist into late childhood

 

15

What happens to microglia activity in autism?

Overactivated (amoeboid)

16

What happens to microglial density and volume in autistic DLPFC?

Increases

17

What does the first genetic test for autism look for?

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)

18

What did the monozygotic twin who didn't have autism have in his SNPs?

More protective SNPs!

Therefore, you can have the autism SNPs but protective SNPs also play a role.

19

Which SNP is important for protection against autism?

GRM5