What is catatonia?
Motor immobility as evidenced by catalepsy (including waxy flexibility) or stupor
Excessive motor activity (purposeless, not influenced by external stimuli)
Extreme negativism (motiveless resistance to all instructions or maintenance of a rigid posture against attempts to be moved) or mutism
Peculiarities of voluntary movement as evidenced by posturing, stereotyped movements, prominent mannerisms, or prominent grimacing
Echolalia or echopraxia
Which region of the brain is one of the last to show grey matter loss?
In what order does cortical grey matter thinning occur?
Posterior regions first, prefrontal and lateral temporal later
What role do synapses play in schizophrenia?
It is suggested that in schizophrenia and other disorders in childhood and adolescence, there is a problem with synaptic formation or pruning
What happens to grey matter in the frontal cortex throughout adolescence?
It is lost
What is the final phase of synaptogenesis?
occurs early in sensory cortex
Late in frontal cortex
What happens to synaptic spine density of pyramidal cells across development?
Dendritic spine density is 2-3 x greater in children compared with adults, and
Begins to decrease during puberty
synaptic overproduction and elimination continues beyond adolescence and throughout 3rd decade, before stabilising
What happens to anatomical connectivity during development?
↓ neuronal connections (dendrites & synapses; ↓ connections between thalamus & cortex; ↓ synapsin, ↓ gap43, ↓connexins)
What regulates the cell skeleton?
How are human protoplasmic astrocytes different compared to rodents?
Almost 3-fold greater in diameter
10 fold more abundant GFAP-defined processes
What happens to glial density and neuronal size in shizophrenia?
What happens to neuron size in the DLPFC in schizophrenia?
What is OCD behaviour linked to?
Hoxb8 mutants have behaviour similar to OCD, can be rescued by transplantation of wild-type bone marrow
What microglia abnormalities are seen in autism?
Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a region of peak early overgrowth
Grey and white matter both affected
Enlargement does not persist into late childhood
What happens to microglia activity in autism?
What happens to microglial density and volume in autistic DLPFC?
What does the first genetic test for autism look for?
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
What did the monozygotic twin who didn't have autism have in his SNPs?
More protective SNPs!
Therefore, you can have the autism SNPs but protective SNPs also play a role.
Which SNP is important for protection against autism?