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location and function

lilac leaf and protection


location and function

pine stem- tansport cells dead section and alive section



location and function

Bone- transportation of nutrients



location and function

epithelial and protection


location and function

corn stem and tranportation


location and function

artery and vein



location and function

potatoe cell with I2KI stain , storage


location and function

red pepper cells demonstrating the storage of the red pigment


location and function

coleus stem representing growth


location and function



location and function (think the underbelly of the leaf)

lilac leaf and gas exchange


location and function

sedum leaf and gas exchange


Protection:  Lilac Leaf

What is the function of the waxy cuticle layer on the outer edge of the epithelial layer of a leaf?

The leaf must be protected from environmental conditions that would remove water from its cells.  The waxy coating prevents loss of water.


Protection:  Skin slide

Human skin is composed of layers of epithelial cells. What is a key feature of the outermost layers of human skin cells (see at the uppermost part of the slide)?

They are not living.  The cells in the lower layers all have visible nuclei.


Structural strength:  Pinus stem

Why does a tree die if it is damaged by girdling (the removal of a ring of bark all the way around its circumference)? 

 Girdling removes the living phloem cells that transport the sugars produced by the plant throughout for use in the plants own energy processing in its mitochondria.  Withouth this fuel source, the plant dies slowly.


Structural strength:  Bone

What is the function of the canalculi in bone tissue?

Canalculi  allow the blood to flow through the hard matrix of bone.  Bone tissue is alive and vibrant as indicated by its ability to repair after a break.


What is the primary difference between the primary structural cells of plants (the xylem cells) and the bone cells of skeletal animals (besides that one is plant and the other is animal)?

Xylem cells are not alive—no nuclei, basically hollow tubes much like a drinking straw. The wood of a plant is composed of xylem.  Bone, as indicated above is alive.


Transport:  Corn stem

Draw this stem section below.  Indicate which cells of the “monkey face” are xylem and which are phloem.

Xylem transports WATER.           Phloem transports SUGARS.


Transport:  human artery/vein

Why does the artery have a thicker muscle layer than the vein?  (Think about the function of both these transport vessels).

The artery has a much thicker muscle since it must be able to sustain the pressure of the blood coming out of the heart and help drive the blood to the extremities.  Veins are basically return tubes and do not need to sustain pressure.


What does the result of the IKI test on the potato indicate as the type of biologically important molecule that is being stored (monosaccharides, polysaccharides, protein, or fat)? Recall what this reagent stains from previous labs.



Storage: Pepper tissue

What is similar about a chromoplast, an amyloplast, and a chloroplast (recall the Elodea leaf viewed in the previous microscope lab)?

They are all storage structures in plants


The difference between a chromoplast, an amyloplast, and a chloroplast (recall the Elodea leaf viewed in the previous microscope lab)?

They store different substances.  Chloroplasts also have the added ability to conduct the processes of photosynthesis.


Growth:  Starfish development and coleus stem tip

After examining both slides, what generalization can be stated about plant versus animal growth? (hint: does the cell size increase or decrease as the organisms grows?)

Plant cells get larger and animal cells get smaller with each cell division


Gas Exchange:

The stomata of plant leaves open and close under varying environmental conditions.  Under what environmental condition would they close even though this potentially reduces the amount of gas exchange occurring for photosynthesis? Why would they do this?

Conditions that may cause the leaf to lose moisture cause the stomata to close.  There is a balancing act that plants must regulate—the stomata allow the CO2 in and the O2 to leave but if they are open all the time, water can also escape.  These are only on the lower surface of the leaf.  Hot or dry conditions in particular will drive the stomata to close up tightly.  They are most frequently opened up in the cooler parts of the day


Why are 8 haploid spores formed in an ascus in the sordaria experiment?

Meiosis II forms four nuclei and then they divide again via mitosis, which forms eight nuclei.


If asked what percentage of asci observed resulted from the fusion of cells from different color strains, what variables would you use?

cross over absent+crossover present (anywhere were two different colors are observed)/total


Identify the stage of meiosis

homologues synapse and form tetrads

prophase 1


Identify the stage of meiosis

Spindle fibers seperate homologues to opposite poles

Anaphase 1


Identify the stage of meiosis

Nuclear Membrane reforms; 4 daughter cells formed

Telophase 2


Identify the stage of meiosis

Replicated chromosomes line up along equator, no homologues present

Metaphase II