cellular respiration Flashcards Preview

Bio 120 Final > cellular respiration > Flashcards

Flashcards in cellular respiration Deck (46)
Loading flashcards...
1
Q

Forms of energy

A

kinetic and potential

2
Q

Metabolic pathways

A

a series of enzymatic reactions that converts one biological material to another.

3
Q

Anabolism

A

Metabolic pathways that construct molecules, requiring energy.

4
Q

Catabolism

A

Metabolic pathways that break down molecules, releasing energy.

5
Q

free energy

A

energy that is available to do work

6
Q

energy coupling reaction

A

the use of energy released from exergonic reactions to drive essential endergonic reaction.

7
Q

enzyme

A

A type of protein that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing

8
Q

Cofactors

A

Any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme. Cofactors can be permanently bound to the active site or may bind loosely with the substrate during catalysis

9
Q

coenzyme

A

small carbon containing molecules which are not permanently bound to the enzyme, and must collide with the enzyme and bind to it’s active site before the catalytic reaction occurs.

10
Q

prosthetic group

A

A cofactor or coenzyme that is covalently bonded to a protein to permit its function

11
Q

ATP

A

(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work

12
Q

Structure of ATP

A

adenine, ribose, 3 phosphate groups

13
Q

What releases energy in ATP

A

hydrolysis

14
Q

substrate-level phosphorylation

A

The enzyme-catalyzed formation of ATP by direct transfer of a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

15
Q

Chemiosmosis

A

A process for synthesizing ATP using the energy of an electrochemical gradient and the ATP synthase enzyme.

16
Q

oxidative phosphorylation

A

The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration.

17
Q

Photophosphorylation

A

The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.

18
Q

Oxidation

A

loss of electrons

19
Q

reduction

A

gain of electrons

20
Q

Aerobe

A

Organism that can grow in the presence of atmospheric oxygen.

21
Q

Anaerobe

A

any organism that is able to live without oxygen

22
Q

cellular respiration

A

Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen

23
Q

Mitochondria structure

A

outer membrane, inner membrane, intermembrane space, matrix, cristae

24
Q

Four stages of aerobic respiration

A

glycolysis, formation of acetyl coenzyme A, citric acid cycle/ Krebs cycle, electron transport and chemiosmosis

25
Q

Glycolysis

A

the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.

26
Q

two phases of glycolysis

A

energy investment phase and energy payoff phase

27
Q

Glycolysis produces

A

2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvate

28
Q

Formation of Acetyl CoA

A

coenzyme-A attaches to NADH

29
Q

Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)

A

second stage of cellular respiration, in which pyruvic acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy-extracting reactions

30
Q

Where does glycolysis occur?

A

cytoplasm

31
Q

Where does the Krebs cycle occur?

A

mitochondrial matrix

32
Q

The Krebs cycle produces

A

2ATP, 6NADH, and 2FADH

33
Q

What molecules carry the most energy

A

NADH and FADH2

34
Q

electron transport chain

A

A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.

35
Q

Where does the electron transport chain occur?

A

inner membrane of mitochondria

36
Q

ATP synthase

A

Large protein that uses energy from H+ ions to bind ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP

37
Q

Aerobic Respiration yields

A

36-38 ATP

38
Q

pyruvate formation yields

A

2 NADH

39
Q

Krebs cycle yields

A

6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 2 ATP

40
Q

Fermentation

A

A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.

41
Q

functions of fermentation

A
  • It is an inefficient way to use fuel
  • It allows organisms to survive without oxygen
  • It removes toxic excess NADH in the cytosol
  • It replenishes the supply of NAD+
42
Q

Autotroph

A

An organism that makes its own food

43
Q

Heterotroph

A

An organism that cannot make its own food.

44
Q

Phototrophs

A

obtain energy from light

45
Q

Chemotrophs

A

Organisms that get energy from chemicals taken from the environment

46
Q

Photoautotrophs

A

Organisms that use light as a source of energy to synthesize organic substances.