Flashcards in Central and Local Government Deck (11):
How did Henry change central government?
• King’s Council: over 200 councillors during reign but each meeting was a far smaller number. Inner group = Lord Chancellor, Lord Privy Seal, Lord Treasurer + five others.
• Court or Requests, Court of General Surveyors, Council Learned in the Law.
• Did not rely on particular families - he needed experts in property law and administration, so he needed men of ability, rather than just birth.
What was the Court of Requests?
Part of the Royal Council that dealt with individual requests from ordinary people.
What was the Court of General Surveyors?
This checked in revenue coming in from crown lands and those lands of which the king was feudal overlord.
What was the Council Learned in the Law?
Dealt with problems concerning royal lands and rights. It was staffed by men with legal expertise and was important in enforcing bonds and recognisances.
How did Henry restore royal authority in the North?
• Developed Yorkist use of regional councils.
•Council in London closely monitored the Council of the North’s activities and Henry personally appointed members.
How did Henry restore royal authority in Wales?
• Due to the absence of continuous and effective rule from London, Wales had been particularly unruly during the Wars of the Roses.
• Henry revived the Council of Wales and the Marches which was created by Edward IV.
• His Welsh connections and the death/loss of lands by a number of Marcher lords, he increased control.
How did Henry restore royal authority in Ireland?
• Ireland was a Yorkist stronghold and was a particular problem for Henry.
• Poyning’s Law (1494) stipulated that Irish parliaments could only be called and pass laws with the prior approval of the king. However, Poyning’s failed to bring Ulster under greater control and Henry was forced to rely on its rule through traditional families as it would be costly to increase control.
What were the new roles of the Justices of the Peace that Henry added?
• Implementing social and economic statutes.
• Dispensing justice and trying criminal offences.
• Upholding public order.
• Replacing suspect members of juries.
• Acting in class of non-capital offences without a jury.
• Rewarding informers.
• Arresting and questioning poachers.
• Empowered to grant bail.
Why were the Justices of the Peace limited?
They were dependent on other officials to bring offenders to them. Local officials were often reluctant to act as it made them unpopular and local offices were frequently left unwilled. As a result, Henry was heavily dependent upon goodwill to ensure justice was implemented.
How important was parliament?
• The king could summon, dissolve and prorogue parliament when he wished.
• Called when Henry needed money or to pass laws.
• House of Lords was seen as the more important house.
• Only met 7 times during Henry’s reign.
• Used to pass Acts of Attainder against nobles, uphold Henry’s claim to the throne and define responsibilities of the JPs.