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Flashcards in central endocrine glands Deck (19):
0

hydrophilic hormones

peptides and catecholamines

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peptides

amino acid chains, from the body

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steroids

cholesterol, from adrenal cortex, gonads, placental

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hydrophilic

bind to surface membrane receptors and produce effects through 2nd messenger system ( cAMP and Calcium)

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pituitary gland

small gland located at the base of the brain, connected to hypothalamus by a thin connecting stalk. Has 2 anatomical and functionally distinct lobes ( pos and ant)

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posterior pituitary

neurohypophysis- nervous tissues

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anterior pituitary

adrenohypophysis- glandular epithelia tissue

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2 factors that regulate anterior pituitary hormone secretion

hypothalamic hormone, feedback by target gland hormone

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Anterior pituitary includes which hormones?

TST, FSH, Prolactin, LH, GH, ACTH

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TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone, produces T3 and T4, metabolic rate

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ACTH

adrenal cortex, cortisol, stress response and metabolic

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Prolactin

mammary glands, breast growth and milk

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LH and FSH are

gonads! LH is for sex hormone and FSH is for gamete- both are gonotrophins

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Growth hormone

-produced by somatotrophic cells
-body growth and metabolism
- targets bones and skeletal muscles
- stimulates growth by activating osteoblasts
-mobilizes fat stores as major energy

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other factors that influence growth

genetic determination, diet- protein and amino acids, freedom from chronic disease and environmental conditions, normal level of hormone

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other growth influence hormones

-thyroid: skeletal growth
- Insulin: interacts with IGF-I receptor, too much growth
- Androgens: puberal growth spurt, protein synthesis, linear growth
- Estrogens: ??? some says it inhibits chondroyte proliferation

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posterior pituitary hormones

2 small peptide hormones:
- Vasopressin
- Oxytocin

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vasopressin

aka Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
- conserve water during urine formation
- decrease urine production
- decrease sweating
- increase bp

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Oxytocin

-during delivery, stimulates uterine contraction and milk generation during breast feeding