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Flashcards in Pathophysiology Deck (19):
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iatrogenic

induced by medical treatments like chemo, radiation therapy, or surgical removal, beta blocker, chronic hormone replacement therapy

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anterior pituitary growth hormone disorders

hypersecretion-gigantism, acromegaly
hyposecretion- dwarfism

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Acromegaly in adults, gigantism in children

increase in frontal sinuses, ring/shoe size, deepened voice and enlarged tongue. Treatment is GH replacement therapy.

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pituitary dwarfism

hypoglycemia, growth 3%, dental delayed, thin hair and greater fat mass.
Adults have hypercholesterolemia, decreased bone density and body mass

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Posterior pituitary of ADH diseases

hyposecretion- diabetes insipidus
hypersecretion- Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion, adrenal insufficency and Hypothyrodism

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Diabetes inspidus

not enough ADH, too much water leaves the body, constant thirst and urination. Causes the 3 poly (polyuria, nocturia, high Na in blood)

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SIADH

more water, less Na, increase bp

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Hypothyroidism causes

primary failure of thyroid gland, secondary to a deficiency of TRH, TSH, or both, not enough iodine, cretinism, congenital, Hashimoto

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Myxedema (in hypothyroid state)

thickening, non-pitting edematous changes in the soft tissues. coma is rare and life-threatening condition occurring in progression of Hypothyroidism. Treatment is thyroid hormone replacement

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Cretinism

hypothyroid disorder, caused by untreated congenital thyroid hormone deficiency. Causes stunted growth mentally and physically, abnormal bone development myxedema- might have goiter

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hyperthyroidism causes

thyroid nodules for excess hormone secretion called hot nodules. It feels hot and might lose weight even though they are eating more. Solution is surgery removal, iodine ( radioactive) to shrink thyroid.

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Grave's disease

hyperthyroidism disorder, enlarged thyroid ( goiter) producing too much thyroid hormone, women are likely to get disease, runs in the family, only a small amount produces too much as most doesn't produce enough.

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Thyroid storm

life threatening thyrotoxicosis, when excessive amounts of thyroid hormone is released. It triggers radioactive iodine therapy, emotional stress, uncontrolled diabetes. It increases heart rate, arrhythmia, CHF, temperature, extreme restless, agitation.

Treatment includes cooling with ice packs. BUT don't induce shivering


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Hyperparathyrodism

increase in calcitonin, bone deformity and fractures, Calcium stones in urinary tract.
Causes kidney stones, osteoporosis, dehydration, high serum calcium levels, decrease neuromuscular excitability

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hypoparathyrodism

severe muscle tetany due to low calcium levels, too much claw like hands, numbness, cramps, spasms, seizures

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Adrenocortical insufficiency

causes anorexia, weight loss, salt wasting, diminished vascular tone, reduced cardiac output and low bp. Treatment is intravenous glucocorticoids and volume replacements

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Cushing's syndrome

hypersecretion of corticosteroids, changes in carbs and protein metabolism, results in puffy moon shaped face

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Pheochromocytoma

Adrenal medulla disorder, a tumor resulting in too much production of catecholamines.
causes hypertension, headache, tachycardia, tremor, nervousness

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Pancreas disorder

hyperinsulism: hypoglycemia, too much insulin released, pancreatic cancer- too much production of insulin, lack of glucose delivery to the brain

hypoinsulism; diabetes mellitus