Cerebrovascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Cerebrovascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebrovascular Disease Deck (24):
1

What is a stroke ?

Acute focal neurological deficit lasting longer than 24 hours or causing sudden death with no apparent cause other than a vascular one
Incomplete recovery: ischaemia and infarction

2

Give an example of when a stroke occurs

Hemiparesis flowing a middle cerebral artery thromboembolus

3

Describe the symptoms of a stroke

FAST:
Facial drooping,arm weakness, slurred speech and Time greater than 24 hours

4

State 2 other features of a stroke

1. Blurred or loss of vision
2. Hemiparesis

5

What is a TIA ?

Acute focal neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours usually mins-hours. There is complete recovery: ischaemia without infarction

6

What is amaurosis fugax?

Sudden loss of transient vision I'm in one eye

7

What does an amaurosis fugax often occur with and what can the be the evidence of ?

Amaurosis often occurs with a TIA and can be evidence of an internal carotid artery stenosis

8

What do patient describe amaurosis fugax as ?

Curtain coming down

9

What is a AF and describe how it can give rise to a stroke ?

AF is an irregular rhythm abnormality, which causes stasis of blood in the atria. This leads to the formation of a thromboembolus in the heart, which can dislodge and travel to the brain to cause a stroke

10

State the 4 non-modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke 😭

1. Increasing age
2. Being male
3. FH/PH
4. Coagulation disorders: SHAT: SLE, hyper-viscosity, amyloidosis and thrombophilia/penia

11

State the 7 modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke

Hypertension, DM, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, smoking, alcohol and drugs, e.g OCP

12

State the 5 Embolic risk factors for development of a stroke

1. AF, 2. MI, 3. IE, 4. Carotid artery stenosis and 5. Sleep apnoea

13

State the 3 features of menigism

Headache, neck stiffness and photophobia

14

State 2 signs of menigism

positive kernig's and brudinski's sign

15

Describe a positive kernig's sign

Pain on extension of the leg of a previously flexed knee or inability to extend the knee, when hip is flexed

16

Describe the brudinski's sign
😭

Involuntary lifting of the legs when Patient lifts up their head

17

State 3 main symptoms of a SAH

1. Sudden onset of a thunderclap headache at the back of the head (occipital)
2. Vomiting w/wout nausea
3. Collapse, coma and seizures may follow; with drowsiness and coma lasting for a few days

18

State 4 signs of a SAH 😭

1. Menigism, 2.Positive kernig's sign, 3.tersons syndrome and 4. Focal neurological deficits may occur depending on site of aneurysm

19

What is terson's syndrome ?

Retinal and subhyaloid vitreous bleeds

20

An aneurysm int the posterior circulation may lead to what ? 😭

NADs
Nystagmus, ataxia and dizziness

21

An aneurysm in the posterior communicating artery may lead to what ?

3rd cranial nerve palsy: DEP
Diplopia, enlarged pupils and ptosis

22

State the 2 vascular abnormalities that predispose to a SAH

AVM and berry aneurysm

23

State 4 complications of a SAH

1. Re-bleeding:sudden death, 2.Cerebral ischaemia
3.Hydrocephalus and 4.Hyponatraemia

24

List the 3 factors that predispose to a subdural haemorrhage

1. Being elderly, 2. Alcoholics and 3. anti-coagulation disorders