Cerebrovascular Disease Flashcards Preview

Neurology > Cerebrovascular Disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cerebrovascular Disease Deck (24):

What is a stroke ?

Acute focal neurological deficit lasting longer than 24 hours or causing sudden death with no apparent cause other than a vascular one
Incomplete recovery: ischaemia and infarction


Give an example of when a stroke occurs

Hemiparesis flowing a middle cerebral artery thromboembolus


Describe the symptoms of a stroke

Facial drooping,arm weakness, slurred speech and Time greater than 24 hours


State 2 other features of a stroke

1. Blurred or loss of vision
2. Hemiparesis


What is a TIA ?

Acute focal neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours usually mins-hours. There is complete recovery: ischaemia without infarction


What is amaurosis fugax?

Sudden loss of transient vision I'm in one eye


What does an amaurosis fugax often occur with and what can the be the evidence of ?

Amaurosis often occurs with a TIA and can be evidence of an internal carotid artery stenosis


What do patient describe amaurosis fugax as ?

Curtain coming down


What is a AF and describe how it can give rise to a stroke ?

AF is an irregular rhythm abnormality, which causes stasis of blood in the atria. This leads to the formation of a thromboembolus in the heart, which can dislodge and travel to the brain to cause a stroke


State the 4 non-modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke 😭

1. Increasing age
2. Being male
3. FH/PH
4. Coagulation disorders: SHAT: SLE, hyper-viscosity, amyloidosis and thrombophilia/penia


State the 7 modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke

Hypertension, DM, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, smoking, alcohol and drugs, e.g OCP


State the 5 Embolic risk factors for development of a stroke

1. AF, 2. MI, 3. IE, 4. Carotid artery stenosis and 5. Sleep apnoea


State the 3 features of menigism

Headache, neck stiffness and photophobia


State 2 signs of menigism

positive kernig's and brudinski's sign


Describe a positive kernig's sign

Pain on extension of the leg of a previously flexed knee or inability to extend the knee, when hip is flexed


Describe the brudinski's sign

Involuntary lifting of the legs when Patient lifts up their head


State 3 main symptoms of a SAH

1. Sudden onset of a thunderclap headache at the back of the head (occipital)
2. Vomiting w/wout nausea
3. Collapse, coma and seizures may follow; with drowsiness and coma lasting for a few days


State 4 signs of a SAH 😭

1. Menigism, 2.Positive kernig's sign, 3.tersons syndrome and 4. Focal neurological deficits may occur depending on site of aneurysm


What is terson's syndrome ?

Retinal and subhyaloid vitreous bleeds


An aneurysm int the posterior circulation may lead to what ? 😭

Nystagmus, ataxia and dizziness


An aneurysm in the posterior communicating artery may lead to what ?

3rd cranial nerve palsy: DEP
Diplopia, enlarged pupils and ptosis


State the 2 vascular abnormalities that predispose to a SAH

AVM and berry aneurysm


State 4 complications of a SAH

1. Re-bleeding:sudden death, 2.Cerebral ischaemia
3.Hydrocephalus and 4.Hyponatraemia


List the 3 factors that predispose to a subdural haemorrhage

1. Being elderly, 2. Alcoholics and 3. anti-coagulation disorders