Flashcards in Cerebrovascular Disease Deck (24):
What is a stroke ?
Acute focal neurological deficit lasting longer than 24 hours or causing sudden death with no apparent cause other than a vascular one
Incomplete recovery: ischaemia and infarction
Give an example of when a stroke occurs
Hemiparesis flowing a middle cerebral artery thromboembolus
Describe the symptoms of a stroke
Facial drooping,arm weakness, slurred speech and Time greater than 24 hours
State 2 other features of a stroke
1. Blurred or loss of vision
What is a TIA ?
Acute focal neurological deficit lasting less than 24 hours usually mins-hours. There is complete recovery: ischaemia without infarction
What is amaurosis fugax?
Sudden loss of transient vision I'm in one eye
What does an amaurosis fugax often occur with and what can the be the evidence of ?
Amaurosis often occurs with a TIA and can be evidence of an internal carotid artery stenosis
What do patient describe amaurosis fugax as ?
Curtain coming down
What is a AF and describe how it can give rise to a stroke ?
AF is an irregular rhythm abnormality, which causes stasis of blood in the atria. This leads to the formation of a thromboembolus in the heart, which can dislodge and travel to the brain to cause a stroke
State the 4 non-modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke 😭
1. Increasing age
2. Being male
4. Coagulation disorders: SHAT: SLE, hyper-viscosity, amyloidosis and thrombophilia/penia
State the 7 modifiable risk factors for development of a ischaemic stroke
Hypertension, DM, hypercholesterolaemia, obesity, smoking, alcohol and drugs, e.g OCP
State the 5 Embolic risk factors for development of a stroke
1. AF, 2. MI, 3. IE, 4. Carotid artery stenosis and 5. Sleep apnoea
State the 3 features of menigism
Headache, neck stiffness and photophobia
State 2 signs of menigism
positive kernig's and brudinski's sign
Describe a positive kernig's sign
Pain on extension of the leg of a previously flexed knee or inability to extend the knee, when hip is flexed
Describe the brudinski's sign
Involuntary lifting of the legs when Patient lifts up their head
State 3 main symptoms of a SAH
1. Sudden onset of a thunderclap headache at the back of the head (occipital)
2. Vomiting w/wout nausea
3. Collapse, coma and seizures may follow; with drowsiness and coma lasting for a few days
State 4 signs of a SAH 😭
1. Menigism, 2.Positive kernig's sign, 3.tersons syndrome and 4. Focal neurological deficits may occur depending on site of aneurysm
What is terson's syndrome ?
Retinal and subhyaloid vitreous bleeds
An aneurysm int the posterior circulation may lead to what ? 😭
Nystagmus, ataxia and dizziness
An aneurysm in the posterior communicating artery may lead to what ?
3rd cranial nerve palsy: DEP
Diplopia, enlarged pupils and ptosis
State the 2 vascular abnormalities that predispose to a SAH
AVM and berry aneurysm
State 4 complications of a SAH
1. Re-bleeding:sudden death, 2.Cerebral ischaemia
3.Hydrocephalus and 4.Hyponatraemia