Ch 1,2,3 Final Exam Flashcards Preview

Sports Medicine > Ch 1,2,3 Final Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 1,2,3 Final Exam Deck (352):
1

What is athletic training?

A health care profession practiced by athletic trainers who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and clients.

2

What does athletic training encompass?

Athletic training focuses on prevention, diagnosis, and intervention of emergency, acute, and chronic medical conditions.

3

Students who want to become certified athletic trainers must earn what?

A degree

4

What are six places that athletic trainers can provide services?

1. Health care rehab
2.military
3.occupational health
4.perfoming arts
5.physician practice
6.public safety

5

What are credentials?

A qualification, typically used to show that they are qualified for something.

6

What does NATA stand for?

National Athletic Trainer's Association.

7

Roles of an athletic trainer

injury prevention
evaluation and assessment
care of injuries
treatment
organization
professional development

8

difference between rehabilitation and reconditioning

rehabilitation is the process of getting a person back to normal function following an injury or illness.
reconditioning is getting the athlete back into shape for athletic participation

9

what is sports medicine?

sports medicine is not a single career, but instead a widely varied group of professionals all concerned with the health and well being of an athlete.

10

5 people who make of the central sports medicine team?

Athletes
parents
team physician
certified athletic trainer
coaches

11

what type of specialist is commonly a team physician

an orthopedic physician

12

primary care physician

perform routine check-ups and provide care for patients

13

podiatrist

specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of conditions of the foot, ankle, and lower leg

14

allergist

specializes in the diagnosis and treatement of asthma and other allergic diseases

15

urologist

specializes in diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive system

16

gynecologist

specializes in deseases of the female genital tract and women's health

17

cardiologist

specializes in blodd bessels, the heart, and the cardiovascular system

18

pediatrician

manages the health of children, including physical behavior, and mental issues

19

neurologist

treats disorderes that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves

20

chiropractors

seeks to prevent and treat health problems by using spinal adjustments

21

registered dietician

can offer help with the choice of foods a person eats and drinks

22

what is a physician assistant

they practice medicine and do many of the jobs doctors do

23

what are 3 places physician assistants can work

family medicine
internal medicine
emergency medicine

24

what is a physical therapist

specializes in fixing impariments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life

25

what is a nurse practitioner

qualified to treat certain medical conditions without the direct supervision of a doctor

26

assessment of athletic injuries

understand what type of injury it is

27

exercise physiology

how the body responds to exercise and how a body can become more fit

28

first aid

to be able to treat injuries with medicine

29

human anatomy

understanding what is in the body and how those parts function

30

human physiology

the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical function of humans

31

biomechanics

the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms

32

nutrition

the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.

33

pathology of injury and illness

priarily concerns the cause, origin, and nature of disease

34

phramacology

concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs

35

therapeutic modalities

using ultrasound therapy, shortwave diathermy

36

superior

towards the head or upper part of a structure

37

inferior

away from the head

38

anterior

front of the bodyq

39

posterior

back of the body

40

medial

in the middle of the body

41

lateral

the sides of the body

42

proximal

near the trunk

43

distal

away from the trunk

44

superficial

toward the surface of the body

45

deep

inside the body

46

3 primary functions of bones

helps with movement
blood cell production
protection of organs

47

how many bones in the human body

206

48

what is the epiphysis

the growth plate

49

what is cartilage

tough, flexible connective tissue that is found in many areas of the body

50

2 main functions of cartilage

shock absorption
permit smooth bone movement

51

functions of muscles

generate movement
maintain body heat
postural alignment

52

functions of tendons

connect muscle to bone

53

functions of ligaments

connect bone to bone

54

what is the joint capsule

a thin, fibrous sac containing fluid, which surrounds an entire joint

55

what is the synovial membrane

the synovial membrane is a slick membrane lining inside a joint

56

what is flexion

the decreasing of the angle at a joint

57

what is extension

the increasing of the angle at a joint

58

what is hyperextension

represents a movement beyond anatomical position in the direction opposite the direction of flexion

59

adduction

bringing a body part toward the midline

60

abduction

moving a body part away from the midline

61

3 things about medial and lateral rotation

seen in the shoulder and hip
movement involved in the transverse plane
occurs with elbow/knee at 90 degrees

62

what is rotation

rotary movement around a fixed axis
moving of a body part in circular motion

63

what 3 things happen when a tissue is injured

bleed
become inflamed
produce extra fluid

64

5 signs of inflammation

pain
redness
swelling
loss of function
heat

65

medical term for swelling

edema

66

what is a strain

stretching of a tendon

67

4 muscle groups that strains often occur in

hamstrings
quadriceps
gastrocnemius
groin

68

what is a sprain

a stretching of a ligament

69

what is joint laxity

lose joints due to lose ligaments

70

what is a contusion

a region of injured tissue in which blood capillaries have been ruptured

71

what is a hematoma

another name for the collection of blood under the skin

72

incision

a cut or wound made by cutting with a sharp object

73

abrasion

bleeding knee, falling

74

laceration

skin separates from the wound; scarring is frequent

75

avulsion

the forcible tearing away of a body part by trauma

76

amputation

cutting of bone

77

puncture

a wound that is deeper than it is wide

78

what is vasoconstriction

a blood vessel getting smaller

79

what is vasodilation

a blood vessel getting bigger

80

3 factors that slow down healing time

atrophy
infection
poor nutrition

81

what is a dislocation

disruption of integrity of a joint

82

4 injuries can a dislocation cause

avulsion fractures
strains
sprains
decreased blood flow

83

what is subluxation

when a joint dislocates and relocates on its own

84

avulsion fracture

tearing away of bone
common in adolescents

85

stress fracture

microscopic damage to bone

86

epiphyseal

fracture to growth plate

87

spiral fracture

bone fracture occurring when torque is applied along the axis of bone

88

transverse fracture

broken piece of bone is at a right angle to the bone's axis

89

pathological

fracture caused by disease

90

2 common causes of pathological fractures

improper nutrition
eating disorders

91

brain damage is possible after ____ minutes

4-6

92

Brain damage is likely after ___

6-10 minutes

93

Irreversible brain damage is likely after ___

minutes

94

what does therapeutic mean?

something with healing properties

95

what does the I in impress stand for

Initial inflammatory phase

96

what does the M in IMPRESS stand for

mobility restoration phase

97

what does the P in IMPRESS stand for

proprioception phase

98

what does the R in IMPRESS stand for

resistance training

99

what does the E in IMPRESS stand for

endurance training (cardiovascular endurance)

100

what does the 2 S's in IMPRESS stand for

sports specific function

101

goals of the initial injury phase

control of inflammation which produces pain, swelling, warmth, and redness

102

What does the P in prices stand for

protection

103

what does the R in prices stand for

Rest

104

what does the I in prices stand for

Ice

105

What does the C in PRICES stand for

compression

106

what does the E in PRICES stand for

elevation

107

what does the S in PRICES stand for

Support

108

When can the mobility restoration phase be initiated

when they can tolerate the pain

109

what is Range of motion

the full movement

110

what is passive range of motion

ATC moves the injured body segment with the athlete relaxed
(PAIN TOLERANCE)

111

What is Active-assistive range of motion

ATC and athlete work together to move injured segement

112

what is Active range of motion

necessary before strengthening exercises can be initiated.

113

what is flexibility?

ability to move a joint through a full ROM without restritictions
normal flexibility is needed for normal function

114

what is proprioception?

the body's ability to get information to the brain in response to stimulus a rising from the boyd.

115

What are three types of exercises used to restore proprioception

BOSU
Balance board
dynadisk

116

explain the resistance training phase

Introduction of strength exercies

117

What are five examples of how resistance training can be performed

leg adduction
plank
side plank
wall shin raises
arm raises

118

what is muscular strength

muscular strength is the ability to lift a maximal amount of weight for one repetition

119

what is muscular endurance?

the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time

120

what is muscular power?

ability to contract the muscles with speed and force in short, explosive acts

121

explain the cardiovascular endurance phase

the prolonged ability of your heart and lungs to supply muscles with nutrients and oxygen

122

explain the muscular endurance phase

the ability of your muscles to perform contractions for long periods of time
(ex. # of curl-ups)

123

what are four examples of how these phases can be performed?

biking
jogging
curl-ups
push/pull ups

124

explain the sports-specific function phase

preparing the athlete to meet the demands of the sport they compete in

125

what are therapeutic modalities?

treatments used to facilitate healing
Ex. heat, cold, ultrasound, electrical muscle stimulation

126

how are therapeutic modalities categorized?

thermal
electrical
mechanical

127

what are thermal elements?

transfer heat into/out of body tissue

128

what are indications?

a sign or piece of information that indicates somethin

129

what are contraindications?

signs to not do a treatment

130

indications for traction?

spinal disk protrusion
degenerative disk disease
soft tissue stiffness
nerve root compression
muscle spasm
joint tightness

131

contraindications for traction

osteoporosis
malignant tumors
acute injuries

132

what are 8 factors that impede healing?

infection
edema
atrophy
hemorrhage
age of athlete
muscle spams
separation of tissue
excessive scarring

133

what is hematoma

swelling or clotted blood

134

what is ecchymosis

a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath

135

what is cyanosis

a bluish discoloration of the skin

136

what is edema

swelling

137

what is congenital?

a disease that starts at birth

138

what is idiopathic?

a disease that arises spontaneousely

139

what is necrosis?

tissue death

140

what is contracture?

shortening or hardening of the muscles, tendons, or muscles

141

what is atrophy?

muscle shrinking

142

what is dyspnea?

difficult or labored breathing

143

what is apnea?

temporary cessation of breathing

144

what is crepitus?

a grating sound produced by friction between bone and cartilage

145

What are the three lateral ligaments of the ankle?

anterior talofibular
posterior talofibular
calcaneofibular

146

what are the medial ligaments?

deltoid ligaments

147

lateral sprains // what structures are injured?

ATF
PTF
CF

148

lateral sprains// mechanisms

inversion combined with plantarflexion

149

what is the MCL

medial collateral ligament
attaches femur to tibia
provides valgus/medial stability

150

What is the LCL

lateral collateral ligament
attaches femur to fibula
vaurs/lateral stability

151

what is the ACL

anterior cruciate ligament
keeps tibia form moving forward on femur
controls rotation of the knee

152

what is the PCL

posterior cruciate ligament
prevents tibia from moving posterior on femur

153

what is knee cartilage called

meniscus

154

what are the functions of the meniscus

sponge-like material used as shock absorbers and stabilizers within the knee
attached to the top of tibia

155

Medial meniscus is more what?

prone to injuries

156

why is the lateral meniscus injured less?

it has greater freedom of movement

157

what are the four quadriceps muscles?

Rectus femoris
vastus lateralis
vastus intermedius
vastus medialis

158

what are the functions of the rectus femoris?

knee extension
hip flexion

159

what are the functions of the vastus lateralis?

knee extension

160

what are the functions of the vastus intermedius

knee extension

161

what are the functions of the vastus medialis?

knee extension

162

what are the posterior thigh muscles called?

hamstrings

163

What are the three hamstring muscles? Functions?

biceps femoris
semitenainosus
semimembranosus
hip extension and knee flexion

164

what is the illiotibial band?

the distal attachment of the tensor fascia latae muscle
provides lateral support of the knee

165

what is the bursa sac and its functions?

small fluid filled sac lined by synovial membrane
provides cushion between bones and tendons around an injury

166

how many bursa sacs are in the knee?

11 bursae

167

mechanisms of MCL injuries?

valgus force

168

what is the mechanism of LCL injuries

varus force

169

S/S of MCL/LCL injuries

swelling, pain , discoloration
inflammation
instability/ joint laxity

170

what is joint laxity?

a looseness in the joint not present in the uninjured leg

171

Four streps in the immediate treatment of a suspected MCL/LCL injury?

PRICE
ROM as tolerated
orthopedic referral

172

Which meniscus is injured most often? why?

medial firmly attached to medial collateral ligament and joint capsule

173

meniscus injury // mechanism?

valgus force

174

S/S of meniscus injuries

edema developing over 48-72 hour period
joint line pain and loss of motion
intermittent locking and giving way
pain w/ squatting
clicking and/or popping in the knee

175

treatment // meniscus injury

rest
ice
pain receivers
physical therapy

176

what is a meniscectomy?

the surgical removal of all or part of a torn meniscus

177

mechanisms // ACL injuries

the athlete attempting to change directions
jumping / landing

178

s/s of ACL injuries

Rapid moderate to severe edema
moderate to severe pian
instability
athlete will report hearing or feeling a "pop"

179

immediate treatment // ACL injury

PRICE, IMMOBILIZE knee, crutches
referral to an orthopedic MD

180

long-term treatment // ACL injury

surgical repair
rehabilitation for 6-10 months

181

what is the unhappy triad?

an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and the medial meniscus.

182

mechanisms // PCL sprains

athlete falling on a bent knee
hyper flexion
blow to the anterior tibia
hyperextension

183

s/s of PCL injuries

may report "a pop"
sometimes doesn't well to the extent of a torn PCL
posterior tibial sag

184

immediate treatment // PCL injury

PRICES, NSAIDS

185

long- term treatment // PCL injury

Grade 1 and 2 - non-surgical
Grade 3 - surgery

186

What is patella-femoral syndrome?

term for generalized knee pain
usually caused by abnormal stress on the joint
poor patellar tracking is usually the cause
this results in chondromalacia patella

187

what is chondromalacia patella?

a wearing away of cartilage being the patella
(runner's knee)

188

mechanisms // chondromalacia

poor patellar tracking
poor biomechanics
overuse
structural abnormality
weak / under developed thigh muscles or quadriceps

189

what is the Q-angle

quadriceps femurs muscle angle

190

treatment of chondromalacia

correct biomechanics and structural abnormalities
strengthening of knee muscles
ice/ NSAIDS
bracing

191

what is a patellar dislocation?

athletes patella is forced laterally

192

mechanism // patellar dislocation?

when knee is bent and forced to twist inward

193

s/s of patellar dislocation?

patella will be positioned lateral
moderate-severe edema
pain
inability to move knee/leg

194

treatment // patellar dislocation

reduction by physician
immobilization
restore ROM, strength
use of a knee bone when returning to competition

195

what is patellar tendonitis?

cross section of knee in flexion

196

mechanism // patellar tendonitis

excessive tension over patellar tendon

197

s/s of patellar tendonitis

pain distal the patella
pain initially present only at beginning/end of activity
if untreated, pain will be present before during and after physical activity
going up and down stairs painful

198

treatment // patellar tendonitis

RICE
decreased activity
stretching and strengthening
NSAIDS
taping/ bracing of tendon

199

how might patellar tendonitis be avoided?

patellar brace

200

what is osgood-schlatter disease?

inflammation of the tibia tuberosity of the tibia
tendon becomes irritated

201

s/s of osgood-schlatter disease

pain in the knee or leg below the knee
limping / lump below knee

202

treatment of osgood-schlatter disease

ICE
REST
NSAIDS
improve overall leg strength
improve quadriceps flex

203

what is bursitis?

inflammation of a bursa
typically in knee, elbow, or shoulder

204

s/s of bursitis in the knee

knee is warm to touch
moderate severe edema
squishy to touch
painful /point tender -> move to pressure

205

treatment // knee bursitis

PRICES
protection
risk of infection is high

206

2 types of knee bursitis

pre-patellar bursitis
pes anserine bursitis

207

treatment of bursitis?

joint protection
rest, ice, and pain relievers
RICE

208

specific conditions might a woman be more prone to ?

ACL tears
shin splints
patellar tendonitis
patellar dislocations
IT band syndrome
chondromalacia

209

four main bones of the skull

frontal (anterior)
parietal (superior)
occipital (posterior)
temporal (lateral)

210

medical term for the jaw bone

mandible

211

medical term for the maxilla

the upper jaw

212

how many pounds of force can the skull withstand?

425 Ib

213

function of the frontal lobe

voluntary muscle movement, emotion, and eye movement

214

function // occipital

vision

215

function // parietal

sensation

216

function // temporal

hearing and speech

217

function // cerebellum

equilibrium, muscle actions, some reflexes

218

function of cerebrospinal fluid

protection
provides vital chemicals
helps maintain pressure

219

4 ways head injuries can be prevented

helmets
mouth guards
rules
common sense

220

mechanisms // head injuries

impact or rotation

221

what is a coup injury

caused by stationary skull being hit by an object traveling at a high velocity

222

what is a contra coup injury

a skull in motion moving at a high velocity is suddenly stopped

223

s/s concussion

nausea /vomiting
some mental confusion
amnesia
unsteadiness
tinnitus
dizziness
headache
difficulty speaking
possible battle sign

224

define battle sign

discoloration behind the ear

225

what is tinnatus

ringing in your ears

226

what is retrograde amnesia

the inability to recall events prior to the onset of injury

227

what is anterograde amnesia

the inability to remember events following the injury

228

what is nystagmus?

rapid fluttering of the eyes

229

what is post-concussion syndrome?

a combination of post-concussion symptoms
occurs within 7-10 days ; goes away after 3 months

230

s/s of post-concussion syndrome?

headaches
dizziness

231

treatment of post-concussion syndrome

rest
removed from play

232

C 1-2

Neck flexion

233

C3

lateral neck flexion

234

C4

shoulder elevation

235

C5

shoulder abduction

236

C6

Elbow flexion

237

C7

elbow extension

238

C8

Thumb extension, finger flexion

239

T1

finger abduction

240

L2

hip flexion

241

L3

knee extension

242

L4

ankle dorsiflexion and inversion

243

L2, 3, 4

hip adductors

244

L5

great toe extension, hip abduction

245

S1

ankle plantar flexion, hip extension

246

S2

knee flexion

247

what are the four segments of the spine

cervical (7)
thoracic (12)
lumbar (5)
sacral

248

what are the bones of the spine called?

disc, cervical vertebra

249

3 main functions of the bony spinal column

protect spinal cord
hold body upright for walking
site for muscular attachments

250

3 main functions of the intervertebral disks?

serve as shock absorbers and resist compression during activity
keep vertebrae separated
provide space for nerves to exit the spinal cord

251

3 shortcomings of the disks

do not have a good blood supply
poor healing
disks compress over time

252

functions of trapezius

shoulder elevation
horizontal abduction

253

latissimus dorsi functions

shoulder adduction
shoulder extension

254

erector spinae functions

trunk extension
controls the rate of trunk flexion

255

rhomboids functions

scapular retraction

256

what is kyphosis

excessive thoracic curve

257

what is lordosis

excessive forward curve

258

what is spondylolisthesis?

occurs when one vertebra slips forward on the adjacent vertebra on the adjacent vertebrae

259

s/s of spondylolisthesis?

pain / numbness
weakness in muscles

260

2 surgical options for spondylolisthesis

spinal fusion
freezes nerve

261

what is spondylolysis?

a defect/ fracture in the posterior part of the spine

262

mechanism // spondylolysis

microtrauma to certain joints

263

what is scoliolosis?

lateral curvature of the spine with associate of muscle imbalances

264

which part of the spine do the majority of disk injuries occur in?

lumbar

265

mechanism of intervertebral disk injuries

poor posture over time
forced flexion/extension under weight
poor biomechanics
obesity
rarely will a fail cause a herniated disk

266

s/s of intervertebral disk injuries

burning pain
numbness/ tingling
weakness of the lower extremities
symptoms tend to be aggravated by sitting

267

treatment // intervertebral disk injuries

physical therapy
addressing poor posture / obesity
discectomy / spinal fusion

268

mechanisms // cervical spine injuries

fractures occur as a result of axial loading
dislocations are usually the result of neck flexion combined with rotation

269

what is axial loading

direct blow to the head with cervical spine aligned

270

s/s cervical spine injury

pain around cervical spine
weakness, numbness, and tingling down the arms
possible deformity

271

treatment // cervical spine injury

take charge of the situation
call 911
stabilize the cervical spine
primary survey

272

what type of joint is the glenohumeral joint?

it is a glenohumeral joint

273

four bones of the shoulder

humerus
clavicle
scapula
sternum

274

another term for clavicle

collarbone

275

another term for the sternum

breastbone

276

another term for the scapula

shoulder blade

277

what is the glenoid fossa?

a shallow depression on a bone into which another bone fits to form a joint

278

what is the glenoid labrum?

a ring of tissue that encircles the glenoid fossa
serves as an attachment for the head of the humerus

279

function of supraspinatus

abducts/ elevates the shoulder joint to side

280

function of infraspinatus

externally rotates the shoulder joint

281

function of teres minor

externally rotates the shoulder joint

282

function of subscapularis

depresses the head of the humerus allowing it to move freely
also stabilizes the head of the humerus
internal/ medial rotation

283

3 functions of the deltoid muscle

abduction
flexion
extension

284

function of the serratus anterior

protracts scapula

285

3 main joints of the shoulder

acromioclavicular
glenohumeral
sternoclavicluar

286

2 most commonly injured joints of the shoulder

acromioclavicular joint
glenohumeral joint

287

common causes of shoulder injuries

fall to the outstretched arm
direct blow to shoulder
overuse

288

another term for an AC ligament sprain

shoulder separation

289

mechanisms // AC injuries

a fall onto an adducted arm up against the body
pushes the shoulder hip down

290

treatment of a 1st degree AC sprain

ICE , support/sling
NSAIDS
ROM
protective padding when resuming activity

291

treatment of a 2nd and 3rd degree AC sprain

most likely need surgery

292

mechanisms // muscle and tendon injuries in the shoulder

overuse

293

treatment // chronic shoulder injuries

rest, ice
NSAIDS
correction of muscle imbalances
orthopedic referral

294

mechanisms of rotator cuff strain

excessive motion beyond ROM
repetition
impingement syndrome

295

most often injured rotator cuff sprain

the supraspinatus

296

s/s of rotator cuff strain

pinching of the supraspinatus and/or biceps tendon in the space under the acromion process

297

what athletes are more prone to rotator cuff strains

swimmers
baseball players
volleyball players

298

s/s of impingement syndrome

difficulty reaching up behind the back
pain w/ overhead use of the arm and weakness of shoulder muscles

299

treatment // impingement syndrome

ICE, rest, anti-inflammatories
strengthening of scapular region
complete tears are surgically repaired

300

mechanisms // clavicular fractures

falling onto an outstretched arm
direct blow to the clavicle

301

s/s of clavicular fractures

pain
swelling
bruising

302

most common type of shoulder dislocation

anterior dislocation
a fall to an outstretched arm

303

s/s of a shoulder dislocation

pain in the shoulder
swelling
inability to move joint
bruising

304

treatment // shoulder dislocation

calm athlete down
stabilize shoulder
call 911
assess circulation and sensation

305

2 ways circulation can be assessed

color
temperature
capillary refill

306

how many bones are in the foot

26

307

medial malleolus is the distal head of the ____

tibia

308

lateral malleolus is the distal head of the ____

fibula

309

what is turf toe

stretching/ tearing of the ligaments in the great toe

310

mechanism of turf toe

forceful hyperextension

311

s/s of turf toe

pain
swelling
limited joint movement

312

3 examples of NSAIDS

advil
motrin
aleve

313

most common mechanism // lateral ankle sprain

inversion combined with plantarflexion

314

mechanism of medial ankle sprain

eversion
pes plans increases risk

315

s/s of 1st degree sprain

mild stretching of the ligaments
little loss of function, ROM, strength
no discoloration

316

s/s of a 2nd degree sprain

moderate loss of function
etc

317

s/s of a 3rd degree sprain

severe pain
swelling
tenderness

318

what is an ankle dislocation

a separation of the tibia and fibula from the talus

319

mechanisms of an ankle dislocation

foot is forced inward/ outward
foot is planted and lower leg is forcibly rotated internally

320

treatment // ankle dislocation

immobilize and apply light pressure
possible open fracture

321

mechanisms of achilles tendonitis

repetitive running and/ or jumping

322

s/s of achilles tendonitis

edema
tenderness
crepitus
pain w/ palpation
weakness w/ PF

323

treatment of Achilles tendonitis

rest/ ice
NSAIDS
strengthening exercises

324

mechanism of achilles tendon rupture

forced DF
blow to achilles
sudden, forceful contraction of gastrocnemius

325

s/s of achilles tendon rupture

extreme pain
swelling
discoloration
loss or ability to PF

326

treatment of achilles tendon rupture

surgery, non surgical treatments are okay too

327

mechanism of a jones fracture

forceful contraction of peroneal muscles when foot is in inversion

328

what is a stress fracture

tiny cracks in a bone caused by repetitive actions

329

mechanism of stress fracture

overuse

330

s/s of stress fracture

typically seen in lower third of tibia
increased pain with activity
specific point tenderness
pain above and below injury site
night pain

331

treatment of stress fracture

ice , rest
physical referral
sometimes surgery

332

define avascular

area of the body that has poor blood supply

333

mechanisms of shin splints

pes planus
muscle imbalance/ weakness
improper/ incomplete warm-up
poor flexibility / lack of stretching
poor biomechanics
poor footwear

334

s/s of shin splints

pain in the leg
tenderness and soreness

335

what is anterior compartment syndrome

fluid build up within the compartments of lower leg

336

what is plantar fascitis

pain and inflammation of the plantar fascia

337

mechanism of plantar fascitis

overuse
overweight
pregnancy
improper footware

338

s/s of plantar fascitis

pain on bottom of foot by heel thats worse w/ your 1st steps in the morning

339

what is a heel spur

pointed bony outgrowth on the calcareous
caused by chronic inflmmation

340

mechanisms of hip dislocation

caused by violent force
compression trauma or rotation trauma

341

s/s of hip dislocation

severe pain in hip
leg in affected side apears

342

treatment of hip dislocation

call 911
stabilize victim and treat for shock

343

mechanism of hip pointer

blow to the illiac crest

344

s/s of hip pointer

swelling
pain
decreased movement
point tenderness

345

treatment of hip pointer

initially rest, ice, compression

346

mechanisms // trochanteric bursitis

direct blow to greater trochanter
overuse

347

mechanism of illiotibial band syndrome

irrigation between the it band and the femoral ??
repetitive movement with tight it band
bow legs
pes planes
leg length discrepancy

348

s/s of illiotibial band syndrome

stabbing/ stinging on outside
swelling
tightness

349

s/s of strains

possible swelling
pain
decreased movement
point tenderness
muscle spasm

350

mechanism of femur fracture

usually violent

351

s/s of femur fracture

shortened leg
severe pain
severe internal bleeding
possible shock

352

mechanisms // hip muscle strains

sudden over stretching of the muscle