What is athletic training?
A health care profession practiced by athletic trainers who collaborate with physicians to optimize activity and clients.
What does athletic training encompass?
Athletic training focuses on prevention, diagnosis, and intervention of emergency, acute, and chronic medical conditions.
Students who want to become certified athletic trainers must earn what?
What are six places that athletic trainers can provide services?
1. Health care rehab
What are credentials?
A qualification, typically used to show that they are qualified for something.
What does NATA stand for?
National Athletic Trainer's Association.
Roles of an athletic trainer
evaluation and assessment
care of injuries
difference between rehabilitation and reconditioning
rehabilitation is the process of getting a person back to normal function following an injury or illness.
reconditioning is getting the athlete back into shape for athletic participation
what is sports medicine?
sports medicine is not a single career, but instead a widely varied group of professionals all concerned with the health and well being of an athlete.
5 people who make of the central sports medicine team?
certified athletic trainer
what type of specialist is commonly a team physician
an orthopedic physician
primary care physician
perform routine check-ups and provide care for patients
specializes in the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of conditions of the foot, ankle, and lower leg
specializes in the diagnosis and treatement of asthma and other allergic diseases
specializes in diseases of the urinary tract and the male reproductive system
specializes in deseases of the female genital tract and women's health
specializes in blodd bessels, the heart, and the cardiovascular system
manages the health of children, including physical behavior, and mental issues
treats disorderes that affect the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
seeks to prevent and treat health problems by using spinal adjustments
can offer help with the choice of foods a person eats and drinks
what is a physician assistant
they practice medicine and do many of the jobs doctors do
what are 3 places physician assistants can work
what is a physical therapist
specializes in fixing impariments and promotes mobility, function, and quality of life
what is a nurse practitioner
qualified to treat certain medical conditions without the direct supervision of a doctor
assessment of athletic injuries
understand what type of injury it is
how the body responds to exercise and how a body can become more fit
to be able to treat injuries with medicine
understanding what is in the body and how those parts function
the science of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical function of humans
the study of the mechanical laws relating to the movement or structure of living organisms
the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
pathology of injury and illness
priarily concerns the cause, origin, and nature of disease
concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs
using ultrasound therapy, shortwave diathermy
towards the head or upper part of a structure
away from the head
front of the bodyq
back of the body
in the middle of the body
the sides of the body
near the trunk
away from the trunk
toward the surface of the body
inside the body
3 primary functions of bones
helps with movement
blood cell production
protection of organs
how many bones in the human body
what is the epiphysis
the growth plate
what is cartilage
tough, flexible connective tissue that is found in many areas of the body
2 main functions of cartilage
permit smooth bone movement
functions of muscles
maintain body heat
functions of tendons
connect muscle to bone
functions of ligaments
connect bone to bone
what is the joint capsule
a thin, fibrous sac containing fluid, which surrounds an entire joint
what is the synovial membrane
the synovial membrane is a slick membrane lining inside a joint
what is flexion
the decreasing of the angle at a joint
what is extension
the increasing of the angle at a joint
what is hyperextension
represents a movement beyond anatomical position in the direction opposite the direction of flexion
bringing a body part toward the midline
moving a body part away from the midline
3 things about medial and lateral rotation
seen in the shoulder and hip
movement involved in the transverse plane
occurs with elbow/knee at 90 degrees
what is rotation
rotary movement around a fixed axis
moving of a body part in circular motion
what 3 things happen when a tissue is injured
produce extra fluid
5 signs of inflammation
loss of function
medical term for swelling
what is a strain
stretching of a tendon
4 muscle groups that strains often occur in
what is a sprain
a stretching of a ligament
what is joint laxity
lose joints due to lose ligaments
what is a contusion
a region of injured tissue in which blood capillaries have been ruptured
what is a hematoma
another name for the collection of blood under the skin
a cut or wound made by cutting with a sharp object
bleeding knee, falling
skin separates from the wound; scarring is frequent
the forcible tearing away of a body part by trauma
cutting of bone
a wound that is deeper than it is wide
what is vasoconstriction
a blood vessel getting smaller
what is vasodilation
a blood vessel getting bigger
3 factors that slow down healing time
what is a dislocation
disruption of integrity of a joint
4 injuries can a dislocation cause
decreased blood flow
what is subluxation
when a joint dislocates and relocates on its own
tearing away of bone
common in adolescents
microscopic damage to bone
fracture to growth plate
bone fracture occurring when torque is applied along the axis of bone
broken piece of bone is at a right angle to the bone's axis
fracture caused by disease
2 common causes of pathological fractures
brain damage is possible after ____ minutes
Brain damage is likely after ___
Irreversible brain damage is likely after ___
what does therapeutic mean?
something with healing properties
what does the I in impress stand for
Initial inflammatory phase
what does the M in IMPRESS stand for
mobility restoration phase
what does the P in IMPRESS stand for
what does the R in IMPRESS stand for
what does the E in IMPRESS stand for
endurance training (cardiovascular endurance)
what does the 2 S's in IMPRESS stand for
sports specific function
goals of the initial injury phase
control of inflammation which produces pain, swelling, warmth, and redness
What does the P in prices stand for
what does the R in prices stand for
what does the I in prices stand for
What does the C in PRICES stand for
what does the E in PRICES stand for
what does the S in PRICES stand for
When can the mobility restoration phase be initiated
when they can tolerate the pain
what is Range of motion
the full movement
what is passive range of motion
ATC moves the injured body segment with the athlete relaxed
What is Active-assistive range of motion
ATC and athlete work together to move injured segement
what is Active range of motion
necessary before strengthening exercises can be initiated.
what is flexibility?
ability to move a joint through a full ROM without restritictions
normal flexibility is needed for normal function
what is proprioception?
the body's ability to get information to the brain in response to stimulus a rising from the boyd.
What are three types of exercises used to restore proprioception
explain the resistance training phase
Introduction of strength exercies
What are five examples of how resistance training can be performed
wall shin raises
what is muscular strength
muscular strength is the ability to lift a maximal amount of weight for one repetition
what is muscular endurance?
the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions against a resistance for an extended period of time
what is muscular power?
ability to contract the muscles with speed and force in short, explosive acts
explain the cardiovascular endurance phase
the prolonged ability of your heart and lungs to supply muscles with nutrients and oxygen
explain the muscular endurance phase
the ability of your muscles to perform contractions for long periods of time
(ex. # of curl-ups)
what are four examples of how these phases can be performed?
explain the sports-specific function phase
preparing the athlete to meet the demands of the sport they compete in
what are therapeutic modalities?
treatments used to facilitate healing
Ex. heat, cold, ultrasound, electrical muscle stimulation
how are therapeutic modalities categorized?
what are thermal elements?
transfer heat into/out of body tissue
what are indications?
a sign or piece of information that indicates somethin
what are contraindications?
signs to not do a treatment
indications for traction?
spinal disk protrusion
degenerative disk disease
soft tissue stiffness
nerve root compression
contraindications for traction
what are 8 factors that impede healing?
age of athlete
separation of tissue
what is hematoma
swelling or clotted blood
what is ecchymosis
a discoloration of the skin resulting from bleeding underneath
what is cyanosis
a bluish discoloration of the skin
what is edema
what is congenital?
a disease that starts at birth
what is idiopathic?
a disease that arises spontaneousely
what is necrosis?
what is contracture?
shortening or hardening of the muscles, tendons, or muscles
what is atrophy?
what is dyspnea?
difficult or labored breathing
what is apnea?
temporary cessation of breathing
what is crepitus?
a grating sound produced by friction between bone and cartilage
What are the three lateral ligaments of the ankle?
what are the medial ligaments?
lateral sprains // what structures are injured?
lateral sprains// mechanisms
inversion combined with plantarflexion
what is the MCL
medial collateral ligament
attaches femur to tibia
provides valgus/medial stability
What is the LCL
lateral collateral ligament
attaches femur to fibula
what is the ACL
anterior cruciate ligament
keeps tibia form moving forward on femur
controls rotation of the knee
what is the PCL
posterior cruciate ligament
prevents tibia from moving posterior on femur
what is knee cartilage called
what are the functions of the meniscus
sponge-like material used as shock absorbers and stabilizers within the knee
attached to the top of tibia
Medial meniscus is more what?
prone to injuries
why is the lateral meniscus injured less?
it has greater freedom of movement
what are the four quadriceps muscles?
what are the functions of the rectus femoris?
what are the functions of the vastus lateralis?
what are the functions of the vastus intermedius
what are the functions of the vastus medialis?
what are the posterior thigh muscles called?
What are the three hamstring muscles? Functions?
hip extension and knee flexion
what is the illiotibial band?
the distal attachment of the tensor fascia latae muscle
provides lateral support of the knee
what is the bursa sac and its functions?
small fluid filled sac lined by synovial membrane
provides cushion between bones and tendons around an injury
how many bursa sacs are in the knee?
mechanisms of MCL injuries?
what is the mechanism of LCL injuries
S/S of MCL/LCL injuries
swelling, pain , discoloration
instability/ joint laxity
what is joint laxity?
a looseness in the joint not present in the uninjured leg
Four streps in the immediate treatment of a suspected MCL/LCL injury?
ROM as tolerated
Which meniscus is injured most often? why?
medial firmly attached to medial collateral ligament and joint capsule
meniscus injury // mechanism?
S/S of meniscus injuries
edema developing over 48-72 hour period
joint line pain and loss of motion
intermittent locking and giving way
pain w/ squatting
clicking and/or popping in the knee
treatment // meniscus injury
what is a meniscectomy?
the surgical removal of all or part of a torn meniscus
mechanisms // ACL injuries
the athlete attempting to change directions
jumping / landing
s/s of ACL injuries
Rapid moderate to severe edema
moderate to severe pian
athlete will report hearing or feeling a "pop"
immediate treatment // ACL injury
PRICE, IMMOBILIZE knee, crutches
referral to an orthopedic MD
long-term treatment // ACL injury
rehabilitation for 6-10 months
what is the unhappy triad?
an injury to the anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and the medial meniscus.
mechanisms // PCL sprains
athlete falling on a bent knee
blow to the anterior tibia
s/s of PCL injuries
may report "a pop"
sometimes doesn't well to the extent of a torn PCL
posterior tibial sag
immediate treatment // PCL injury
long- term treatment // PCL injury
Grade 1 and 2 - non-surgical
Grade 3 - surgery
What is patella-femoral syndrome?
term for generalized knee pain
usually caused by abnormal stress on the joint
poor patellar tracking is usually the cause
this results in chondromalacia patella
what is chondromalacia patella?
a wearing away of cartilage being the patella
mechanisms // chondromalacia
poor patellar tracking
weak / under developed thigh muscles or quadriceps
what is the Q-angle
quadriceps femurs muscle angle
treatment of chondromalacia
correct biomechanics and structural abnormalities
strengthening of knee muscles
what is a patellar dislocation?
athletes patella is forced laterally
mechanism // patellar dislocation?
when knee is bent and forced to twist inward
s/s of patellar dislocation?
patella will be positioned lateral
inability to move knee/leg
treatment // patellar dislocation
reduction by physician
restore ROM, strength
use of a knee bone when returning to competition
what is patellar tendonitis?
cross section of knee in flexion
mechanism // patellar tendonitis
excessive tension over patellar tendon
s/s of patellar tendonitis
pain distal the patella
pain initially present only at beginning/end of activity
if untreated, pain will be present before during and after physical activity
going up and down stairs painful
treatment // patellar tendonitis
stretching and strengthening
taping/ bracing of tendon
how might patellar tendonitis be avoided?
what is osgood-schlatter disease?
inflammation of the tibia tuberosity of the tibia
tendon becomes irritated
s/s of osgood-schlatter disease
pain in the knee or leg below the knee
limping / lump below knee
treatment of osgood-schlatter disease
improve overall leg strength
improve quadriceps flex
what is bursitis?
inflammation of a bursa
typically in knee, elbow, or shoulder
s/s of bursitis in the knee
knee is warm to touch
moderate severe edema
squishy to touch
painful /point tender -> move to pressure
treatment // knee bursitis
risk of infection is high
2 types of knee bursitis
pes anserine bursitis
treatment of bursitis?
rest, ice, and pain relievers
specific conditions might a woman be more prone to ?
IT band syndrome
four main bones of the skull
medical term for the jaw bone
medical term for the maxilla
the upper jaw
how many pounds of force can the skull withstand?
function of the frontal lobe
voluntary muscle movement, emotion, and eye movement
function // occipital
function // parietal
function // temporal
hearing and speech
function // cerebellum
equilibrium, muscle actions, some reflexes
function of cerebrospinal fluid
provides vital chemicals
helps maintain pressure
4 ways head injuries can be prevented
mechanisms // head injuries
impact or rotation
what is a coup injury
caused by stationary skull being hit by an object traveling at a high velocity
what is a contra coup injury
a skull in motion moving at a high velocity is suddenly stopped
some mental confusion
possible battle sign
define battle sign
discoloration behind the ear
what is tinnatus
ringing in your ears
what is retrograde amnesia
the inability to recall events prior to the onset of injury
what is anterograde amnesia
the inability to remember events following the injury
what is nystagmus?
rapid fluttering of the eyes
what is post-concussion syndrome?
a combination of post-concussion symptoms
occurs within 7-10 days ; goes away after 3 months
s/s of post-concussion syndrome?
treatment of post-concussion syndrome
removed from play
lateral neck flexion
Thumb extension, finger flexion
ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
L2, 3, 4
great toe extension, hip abduction
ankle plantar flexion, hip extension
what are the four segments of the spine