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Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (33):
1

Continuous

A process of gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with

2

Discontinuous

A process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times

3

Stages

Qualitative changes in thinking, feeling, and behaving that characterize specific periods of development

4

Contexts

Unique combinations of personal and environmental circumstances that can result in different paths of change

5

Plasticity

Open to change in response to influential experiences

6

Tabula rasa

Blank slate

7

Maturation

Genetically determined, naturally unfolding course of growth

8

Normative approach

Measures of behavior are taken on large numbers of individuals and age related averages are computed to represent typical development

9

Freud's psychoanalytic perspective

Children move through a series of stages in which they confront conflicts between biological drives and social expectations. How these conflicts are resolved determines the person's ability to learn, to get along with others, and to cope with anxiety

Id, ego, superego

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Freud's psychoanalytic perspective - psychosexual theory

Emphasizes that how parents manage their child's sexual and aggressive drives in the first few years is crucial for healthy personality development

1 oral
2 anal
3 phallic
4 latency
5 genital

11

Erikson's psychosocial theory

Emphasized that in addition to mediating between ID impulses and superego demands, the ego makes a positive contribution to development, acquiring attitudes and skills that make the individual an active, contributing member of society

12

Behaviorism

Directly observable events - stimuli and responses- are the appropriate focus of study

Classical or operant conditioning

13

Social learning theory

Devised by Albert Bandura

Emphasizes modeling, aka imitation or observational learning, as a powerful source of development

14

Applied behavior analysis

Consists of observations of relationships between behavior and environmental events, followed by systemic changes in those events based on procedures of conditioning and modeling. The goal is to eliminate undesirable behaviors and increase desirable responses

15

Piaget's Cognitive-Development theory

Children actively construct knowledge as they manipulate and explore their world

Adaptation

Children move through stages

1 sensorimotor
2 preoperational
3 concrete operational
4 formal operational

16

Information processing

Human mind might also viewed as a symbol-manipulating system through which information flows

17

Ethology

Concerned with the adapative, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history

18

Sensitive period

Time that is biologically optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environmental influences. However, it's boundaries are less well defined than are those of a critical period. Development can occur later, but it is harder to induce

19

Evolutionary developmental psychology

It seeks to understand the adaptive value of species-wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age

20

Vygotsky's sociocultural theory

Culture is important to acquiring ways to think and behave

Depends on adult and experienced peers

Social expectations lead to competency

21

Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory

Views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment

22

Microsystems

Innermost

Activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings

23

Mesosystem

Encompasses connections between microsystem

Home, school, neighborhood

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Exosystem

Social settings that do not contain children but that nevertheless affect children's experiences in immediate settings

25

Macrosystem

Consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

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Chronosytem

Life changes can be imposed on the child

27

Naturalistic observation

One approach is to go into the field or natural environment, and observe the behavior of interest

28

Structured observations

Investigators sets up a laboratory situation that evokes the behavior of interest so that every participant has an equal opportunity to display the response

29

Clinical interview

Flexible, conversational style is used to probe for the participant's point of view

30

Structured interviews

Which each participant is asked the same questions in the same way

31

Case study

Brings together a wide range of information on one child, including interviews, observations, and sometimes test scores

32

Ethnography

Understanding a culture or a distinct social group through participant observation

33

Theory

Orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior