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Anatomy And Physiology For SLP > Ch 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 1 Deck (103):
1

Anatomy

Study of the structure of an organism

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Physiology

Study of the function of an organism

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Clinical/applied anatomy

Application of anatomical study for the diagnosis of disease, particularly as it relates to surgical procedures

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Systemic anatomy

Descriptive anatomy, involving the description of individual parts of the body without reference to disease conditions

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Osteology

Study of the form and function of bones

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Anatomical position

Body is erect and the palms, arms, and hands face forward

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Axial skeleton

Head and the trunk with the spinal column being the axis

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Appendicular skeleton

Includes the lower and upper limbs

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Cytology

Study of cells

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Myology

Examines muscle form and function

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Arthrology

Study of the joint system for bones

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Neurology

Study of diseases of the nervous system

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Teratogen

Anything causing teratogenesis, the development of a severely malformed fetus

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Frontal/coronal plane

Front and back portions of a body

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Midsagittal plane

Left and right halves of the body cut along the median plane

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Sagittal/median plane

Cut that is parallel to the median plane and divides the body into left and right portions

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Transverse plane

Divides the body into upper and lower portions

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Anterior/ventral plane

Front surface of a body

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Posterior/dorsal plane

Toward the back

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Rostral/anterior

Toward the head

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Causal/posterior

Lower part of the body

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Superficial

On or near the surface

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Deep

Further from the surface

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Distal

Away from the midline

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Proximal

Toward the root or attachment point of the structure

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Superior

Above, farther from the ground

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Inferior

Below, closer to the ground

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Prone

On the belly

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Supine

On the back

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Lateral

Related to the side

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Medial

Toward the median plane

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Flexion

Bending at a joint, usually toward the ventral surface

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Extension

Opposite of flexion, act of pulling two end father apart

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Plantar

Sole of the foot

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Palmar

Palm of the hand

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Ipsilateral

Same side

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Unilateral

One side affected

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Tissue

4 types-epithelial, connective, muscular, and nervous

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Epithelial tissue

Superficial (outer) layer of mucous membrane and the cells constituting the skin, as well as the linings of major body cavities and all of the "tubes" that pass into, out of, and through the body; hallmark is its shortage of intercellular material; serves as a barrier to prevent or permit substances to pass to the structures being contained by them

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Connective tissue

Specialized for purpose of support and protection; matrix is the defining property and it's composed predominately of it; can be solid, liquid, or gel-like

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Matrix

A material that holds or constrains another material; intercellular material

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Cartilage

Has unique properties of strength and elasticity

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Tensile strength

Keeps the fibers from being easily separated when pulled

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Compressive strength

Retains its form by being resistant to crushing compressing forces

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Hyaline cartilage

Smooth and has a glassy blue cast; provides and,path ,aging surface for the articulating surfaces of bones as in the cartilaginous portion of the rib cage constituting the larynx, trachea, and bronchial passageway

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Fibrocartilage

Contains collagenous fibers that provide the cushion between the vertebrae of the spinal column as well as the material surface for the temporomandibular joint between the lower jaw and the skull

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Yellow/elastic cartilage

Cartilaginous connective tissue that has reduced collagen and increased numbers of elastic fibers; found in the pinna, nose, and epiglottis

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Compact bone

Characterized by microscopically by its lamellar or sheet-like structure

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Spongy bone

Bone that appears porous and contains marrow that produces red and white blood cells

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Abduct

Move away from midline

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Adduct

Move toward midline

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Muscle tissue

Has specialized contractile tissue; capable of being stimulated to contract; 3 types-striated, smooth, and cardiac

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Voluntary muscle

Somatic muscle; can be moved in response to conscious, voluntary processes

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Involuntary muscle

Autonomic muscle; self-regulating muscles; portion of the nervous system controlling involuntary bodily functions

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Striated muscle

Also called skeletal muscle because it is the muscle used to move skeletal structures; striped in appearance

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Smooth muscle

Muscle found in the viscera, including digestive tract and blood vessels; generally sheet-like with spindle-shaped cells

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Cardiac muscle

Muscle of the heart; composed of cells that interconnect in a met-like fashion

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Autonomic nervous system

Self regulating involuntary movement

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Nervous tissue

Highly specialized communicative tissue consisting of neurons or nerve cells; function is to transmit info from one neuron to another, from neurons to muscles, or from sensory receptors to other neural structures

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Neuron

Nerve cell tissue whose function is to transmit info from one neuron to another, from neurons to muscles, or from sensory receptors still other neural structures

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Organs

Tissue of the body with a functional unit by which the tissues of the organ all serve the same general purpose (such as the heart or lungs)

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Fascia

Sheet-like membrane that may be either dense or nearly transparent, thick or thin that surrounds the organs

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Perimysium

Fascia sufficiently thick that the muscle cannot be seen clearly through it; packing material around organs, peripheral nerves, and blood vessels providing physical isolation and stability

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Ligaments

Connective tissue that binds bone to bone

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Tendons

Attach muscle to bone or cartilage

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Morphology

Study of the form

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Aponeurosis

Sheet-like tendon; resembles fascia but much denser

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Articulation

The point of union between two structures

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Osteoporosis

Condition wherein the bone becomes increasingly porous due to loss of calcium

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Joints

Union of bones with other bones or cartilage with other cartilage

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Diarthrodial joints/ synovial joints

High mobility joints; Joints containing synovial fluid within a joint space and the fluid acts like a cushion

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Synarthrodial joint/ fibrous joint

No mobility; joints connected by fibrous tissue

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Amphiarthrodial joint/ cartilaginous joints

Limited mobility; Cartilage serves between the two bones

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Syndesmosis

Joints bound by fibrous ligaments but have little movement

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Sutures

Joints between bones of the skull that are not intended to move at all

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Gomphosis

Hole in peg arrangement suture, type of fibrous joint; ex tooth in socket

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Symphysis

Cartilaginous joint, found between the pubic bones or between disks of the vertebral column

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Synovial fluid

Lubricating substance within a synovial joint

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Epimysium

Fascia of connective tissue that surrounds the muscles

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Muscle origin

Point of attachment of the least mobile element

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Muscle insertion

Point of attachment that moves as a result of muscle contraction

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Agonist

Muscles that move a structure

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Antagonists

Muscles that oppose a given movement

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Synergist/fixator

Muscles that stabilize structures

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Innervate

Supplied by a single nerve, process of stimulating a muscle or gland or receiving output from a body sensor

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Efferent

Excitatory

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Afferent

Sensory

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Motor unit

One efferent nerve fiber and the muscle fibers to which it attaches/innervates

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Systems

Groups of organs with a functional unity

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Muscular system

Includes smooth, striated, and cardiac

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Skeletal system

Includes bone and cartilages that form the structure of the body

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Respiratory system

Includes the passageways and tissues involved in gas exchange with the environment including the oral, nasal, and pharyngeal cavities; the trachea and bronchial passageway; and the lungs

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Digestive system

Includes the oral cavity and the pharynx in addition to the esophagus, liver, intestines, and associated glands

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Nervous system

Includes the nerve tissue and structures of the central and peripheral nervous systems that are responsible for muscle control and sensory function

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Phonatory system

Involved in the production of voiced sounds and utilizes a significant protective component of the respiratory system (the larynx)

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Articulatory system

The combo of structures that are used to alter the characteristics of the sounds of speech, including parts of the anatomical,h defined dishes rice and respiratory systems (the tongue, lips, teeth, soft palate, etc)

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Resonatory system

Includes the nasal cavity and soft palate and portions of the anatomical,h defined respiratory and digestive systems

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Central nervous system

Portion of the nervous system comprised of the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum, thalamus, basal ganglia, brain stem, and spinal cord

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Peripheral nervous system

Portion of the nervous system including the peripheral body

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Cranial nerves

Peripheral nervous system components arising from the brain stem that innervate primarily the structures associated with speech and hearing

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Cerebral cortex

The highest integrating system of the nervous system responsible for conscious thought and voluntary action

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Brain stem

The subcortical region including the medulla, pins, and midbrain

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Cerebellum

Responsible of integrating all body sense with the motor plan so that what we do is planned appropriately for the context of our body condition