Ch. 1-6 Flashcards Preview

BSC 401 > Ch. 1-6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1-6 Deck (44):
1

Equation for Photosynthesis:

H2O + CO2 + LIGHT --> C6H12O2 + H2O + O2

2

Equation for oxidative phosphorylation:

O2 + H2O + C6H12O2 --> H2O + CO2 + ENERGY

3

Synapomorphy

Shared, derived characteristics

4

Taxonomy vs Systematics

Taxonomy: Descriptive, classification system

Systematics: Study of relationships

5

Merisitic characters

Correspond to body segments you can count

6

Morphometric characters

Correspond to measurable structures

7

Placoid scales

Hard covering like enamel

(Teeth in sharks are modified placoid scales)

8

Cosmoid scales

Extinct (Similar to placoid)

9

Ganoid scales

Most primitive, modified cosmoid scales (gars and coelacanths)...reduced flexibility but very tough

10

Cycloid scales

Almost completely dermal (little enamel)

11

White muscle

-Low myoglobin
-Most of post-cranial body
-Low efficiency
-Poorly vascularized
-Burst swimming

12

Red muscle

-High myoglobin
-Thin sheets under skin
-High efficiency
-Sustained swimming
-Highly vascularized

13

Pseudobranch

(Under operculum) Provide oxygenated blood to visual system

14

Oxygen debt

Period of time used to pay off debt accumulated during period of insufficient oxygen

15

Oxygen content of water vs. air

Water: Less than 1%
Air: More than 20%

16

Aquatic Surface Respiration (ASR)

More oxygen at top of body of water...organisms swim to top to respire

17

Gill pumping

Pump water across gills by increasing/decreasing volume of buccal chamber and opercular chamber

18

Ram ventilation

Keeping mouth open while swimming

19

Salting Out Effect

Fresh water contains less oxygen because of low solubility of gases in water with increasing concentrations of salt.

20

Four types of air breathing fish:

1. Aquatic: Remain in water all the time
2. Facultative: Only use gill respiration when necessary
3. Obligate: Must have access to air or they drown
4. Amphibious: Survive and remain active out of water

21

Bohr Effect

Hemoglobin has higher affinity for oxygen at high pH

22

Standard metabolic rate

Metabolic rate of a fish while it is at rest and has no food in its gut

23

Routine metabolic rate

Indicate that standard rate is made at normal activity levels

24

Maximum metabolic rate

Fish is using oxygen as fast as it can be supplied

25

Metabolic scope

Difference between standard and maximum rates

26

Rete Mirabile

(Wonderful net) Bundle of capillaries that run countercurrent to one another.

Improves efficiency of gas gland by building up levels of diffusible gases in gland.

27

The Energy Equation

C = E + R + P

C= Consumed
E= Energy excreted
R= Energy used in respiration
P= Energy remaining for production

28

Mechanoreception

Detection of movement of water

29

Lateral line system and inner ear contain...

Sensory hair cells in bundles called neuromasts

30

Cupula

Screens out background noise by controlling the little hairs

31

Subdivisions of lateral line system:

1. Superficial neuromasts: Free standing on skin/efficient in still water

2. Canal neuromasts: Channels beneath scales/efficient in quick-moving water (or fish!)

32

Pars superior

Portion of inner ear that maintains postural equilibrium and balance

33

Dorsal Light Reflex

Utricle works in coordination with the detection of light from above the fish by the retina of the eyes which keeps the fish upright.

34

Hearing specialists

Have mechanisms that transmit gas bladder vibrations to the inner ear for detection

(Otophysan fishes are largest group because of special Weberian ossicle bones in ear)

35

Hearing generalists

Don't have super cool mechanisms

36

Fenstra ovalis

Connection sharks have that enhance hearing by directing sound of sensory area to inner ear

37

Electroreception

Receptor cells used for detecting electricity are derived from hair cells of mechanoreception system

38

Ampullary receptors

Sensitive to electric fields in low frequency.

Common in marine fishes.

Use for predator/prey detection and social interactions

39

Tuberous receptors

Detect high frequency electric fields

Found in fish that produce their own electric field

Limited to freshwater fishes

40

Jamming avoidance response (JAR)

Fish shift their EOD frequencies when they get near one another to prevent interference with ability to electrolocate

41

EOD

Electric organ discharge..used for navigation, communication, defense and also sometimes for the incapacitation of prey

42

Choroid gland

Maintains high oxygen levels in retina by receiving oxygenated blood from pseudobranch

43

Chemoreception

Sense of smell (olfaction), sense of taste (gustation), and magnetic reception

44

Physostomous fish

Able to gulp air...allows fish to live in low oxygenated areas