Ch 1. 6, language of anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1. 6, language of anatomy Deck (80):
1

standard anatomical body position

body erect, feet slightly apart, arms at side, palms facing forward

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superior (cranial)

toward the head end or upper part of a structure of the body, above

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inferior ( caudal)

away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body; below

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ventral (anterior)

toward or at the front of the body; in front of

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dorsal (posterior)

toward or at the back of the body; behind

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medial

toward or at the midline of the body; on the inner side of

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lateral

away from the midline of the body; or the outer side of

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intermediate

between a more medial and lateral structure

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proximal

closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk

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distal

farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body part

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superficial (external)

toward or at the body surface

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deep (internal)

away from the body surface; more internal

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ipsilateral

body parts on the same side of the midline

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contralateral

body parts on opposite sides of the midline

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Two major divisions of the body

a. Axial- head, neck and trunk
b. Appendicular- limbs (arms and legs)

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frontal

forehead

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orbital

eye

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nasla

nose

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oral

mouth

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mental

chin

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cervical

the neck region

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thoracic

the chest

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sternal

the region of the breast bone

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axillary

the armpit

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mammary

the breast

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abdominal

the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs

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umbilical

the navel

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pelvic

the pelvis region

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inguinal

groin

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pubic

the genital region

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acromial

round of shoulder

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brachial

the arm

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antecubital

the anterior surface of the elbow

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antebrachial

forearm

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carpal

wrist

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manus

hand

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pollex

big thumb

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palmar

palm

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digital

fingers or toes

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coxal

hip

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femoral

thigh

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patellar

anterior knee (knee cap)

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crural

leg

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fibular or peroneal

side of leg

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pedal

foot

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tarsal

ankle

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metatarsal

top of foot

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hallux

big toe

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plantar

bottom of foot

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calcaneal

heel

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sural

calf

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metacarpal

front of hand

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olecranal

back of elbow

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otic

back of ear

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occipital

back of head

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scapular

shoulder blade area

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vertebral

area of the spinal cord

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lumbar

back between ribs and hips

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sacral

area between hips

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gluteal

butt

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perineal

between anus and external genitalia

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sagittal plane

vertical cut into left and right parts

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midsagittal (median) plane

cut into right and left halves

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parasagittal plane

not on midline

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frontal plane (coronal)

vertical cut into anterior and posterior parts

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transverse planes (horizontal) (cross section)

horizontal cut into superior and inferior parts

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oblique section

diagonal cut

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longitudinal sections

made by a cut along the long axis of a structure could be frontal or median

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anatomical variability

over 90% of all anatomical structures match textbook descriptions but;
a, nerves and blood vessels ma be out of place
b, small muscles may be missing

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dorsal cavity

protects nervous systems
Cranial cavity: encloses brain
Vertebral cavity: encloses spinal cord

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ventral cavity

protects thoracic and abdominal organs (viscera)
2 subdivisions-separated by diaphragm

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thoracic cavity

3 subdivisions
2 pleural cavities-each house a lung
Mediastinum:
superior portion- surrounds esophagus, trachea, large blood vessels
pericardial cavity- encloses heart

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abdominopelvic cavity

subdivisions; not physically separate, lies in bony pelvis
abdominal cavity(superior)- stomach, spleen, intestines and liver
pelvic cavity(inferior)- urinary bladder, reproductive organs, rectum

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membranes in ventral body cavity

serous membrane (serosa)-outer wall
thin double layered membrane separated by serous fluid
parietal serosa lines internal body walls
visceral serosa covers the internal organs
--serous fluid allows body organs to move without friction

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abdominopelvic regions and quadrants

pics

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oral and digestive cavities

teeth and tongue

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nasal cavity

respiratory, posterior nose

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orbital cavities

eye sockets

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middle ear cavities

location of ossicles- medial to eardrums

80

synovial cavities

joint cavities eg. knee, elbow