Ch 1- Endocrine system (hormones) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1- Endocrine system (hormones) Deck (61):
0

What temp, blood glucose % v and pH values dose the body best work at?

37* , 0.1% , and 7.35

1

What is Homeostasis?

It is your bodies attempt to adjust to the environment. -> balance in your body.

2

Nervous system enables the body to______

While the endocrine system is designed to_____

Adjust quickly to changes in the environment.

Maintain control over long durations (slow).

3

What are Hormones?

~made of protein
~regulate by speeding up or slowing down certain processes
~only a small amount is needed to alter a cell
~blood carries hormones

4

Non-target hormones

Affect many cells or tissues throughout the body.

5

Target hormones

Affect only certain cells or tissues.

6

What is an Endocrine gland?

They are glands that secrete their hormones into the blood stream. They are located throughout the body.

7

Endocrine Glands

Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, and Hypothalamus.

8

Pituitary

Middle of head (just under brain) ~master gland

9

Thyroid

Base of neck (butterfly)

10

Parathyroid

4 nodes on thyroid

11

Thymus

Above heart

12

Adrenal

On top of kidneys

13

Pancreas

Under stomach

14

Ovaries

Lower abdomen (gonads)

15

Testes

In the scrotum (gonads)

16

Hypothalamus

Above pituitary

17

Endo.

Exo.

In.

Out.

18

What are Exocrine glands?

Glands that secrete substances anywhere else other then the bloodstream.
-sweat
-saliva
-pancreas (buffers) (is both exo. and endo.)

19

The pituitary

Also called - the master gland.
Has control over the other endocrine glands.
Size of a peanut.
Is connected to the hypothalamus near the base of the brain.
Produces and stores hormones.

20

The pituitary gland consists of two lobes

Anterior: secretes and produces certain hormones
and
posterior: secretes (release) but dose not produces certain hormones

21

Anterior Pituitary

HGH
TSH
ACTH
FSH
LD
prolactin

22

Posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus makes theses.

ADH
oxytocin

23

HGH

Human growth hormone. ( none target )

24

TSH

Thyroid stimulating hormone -> metabolism

25

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone -> adrenalin

26

FSH

Follicle stimulating hormone
Girl =egg maturing
Boy=sperm production

27

LH

Lutenizing hormone. Boys -testosterone girls -ovulation (gonadotropic)

28

Prolactin

Produce milk (gonadotropic)

29

ADH

Anti diuretic hormone (keep water)

30

Oxytocin

Release milk. -> uterin contractions

31

Induce labor

1. Natural - the tramp
2. The drip
3. Gell on cervix
4. Break the water

32

Growth hormone, is a produced by________and promotes the_________

Anterior pituitary, and elongation of the skeleton

33

Hypersecretion

~When too much HGH is released
Gigantism - bone plates not fused
Acromegaly - bone plates fused

34

Hyposecretion

When too little HGH is released (low amount of HGH)
1 frolichs- the proportion are not right
2 primordial- like a doll

35

Thyroid gland

-Located in the base of the neck
-Looks like a butterfly
-It's responsible for production and release of thyroxine and calcitonin

36

Thyroxin

Increases metabolic rate.
60% is heat 40% is converted to energy.
TSH from pituitary stimulates the thyroid witch then release thyroxin into the blood.

37

Calcitonin

Calcium-in (cell)
Regulates amount of calcium in blood.
Let's calcium into cell, decreasing amount of blood in calcium.

38

Thyroid Disorders

Goitre
Caused by lack of iodine in diet.
So low thyroxine = high TSH = swollen overstimulated thyroid = goitre

39

The Adrenal glands are made of......?

Two smaller glands,
Inner-adrenal medulla
Outer- adrenal cortex

40

Adrenal medulla

Produces epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin)

41

Epinephrine

(adrenalin)
increases heart respiratory rate

42

Norepinephrine

(Noradrenalin) ---neurotransmitter [speeds up nervous system]

43

Adrenal cortex

Cortisol and aldosterone

44

Cortisol

Eventually increases blood glucose allowing for cell recovery and

Tissue repair.

45

Aldosterone

-increases sodium retention in the kidney tubules
-causing water to follow staying in the body
(H20 retention)

46

F (felp)

FSH -matures follicles
-from pituitary

47

E (felp)

Estrogen- from maturing follicle
- BUILDS ENDOMETRIUM

48

L (felp)

LH- from pituitary
- causes ovulation

49

P (felp)

Progesterone- from corpusluteum (old follicles)
-keep endometrium there

50

Parathyroid releases a hormone called

(PTH) parathyroid hormone.
It inhibits calcitonin
Blood calcium increasing

51

Pancreas

Both endo and exo
Producing buffers (digestive tract and hormones that regulate blood sugars)


52

The islets of langerhans are...

Cells in pancreas
That produce - insulin and glucagon

53

Insulin

In-cell-in : decreases blood sugar
Muscles and liver become more permeable to glucose
Letting sugar into cells

Help maintain homeostasis

54

Glucagon

Glucos-be-gone : increase blood sugar
Causes liver to release glucose

Help maintain homeostasis

55

Diabetes

No cure
Affects 2 million Canadians
Caused by inability to produce insulin
If left untreated - blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, limb amputation and maybe death

56

Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia

:high blood sugar

:low blood sugar

57

Type 1 diabetes

when pancreas cannot make insulin
Have to take insulin to live

58

Type 2 diabetes

Decreased insulin production
Or ineffective use.
Can be controlled with diet (exercise and some drugs)

59

Gestational diabetes

Temporary diabetes
Happens in 3% of woman

60

Testosterone

Stimulates spermatogenesis
(Beginning of sperm production)