Flashcards in Ch 1- Endocrine system (hormones) Deck (61):
What temp, blood glucose % v and pH values dose the body best work at?
37* , 0.1% , and 7.35
What is Homeostasis?
It is your bodies attempt to adjust to the environment. -> balance in your body.
Nervous system enables the body to______
While the endocrine system is designed to_____
Adjust quickly to changes in the environment.
Maintain control over long durations (slow).
What are Hormones?
~made of protein
~regulate by speeding up or slowing down certain processes
~only a small amount is needed to alter a cell
~blood carries hormones
Affect many cells or tissues throughout the body.
Affect only certain cells or tissues.
What is an Endocrine gland?
They are glands that secrete their hormones into the blood stream. They are located throughout the body.
Pituitary, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Thymus, Adrenal, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes, and Hypothalamus.
Middle of head (just under brain) ~master gland
Base of neck (butterfly)
4 nodes on thyroid
On top of kidneys
Lower abdomen (gonads)
In the scrotum (gonads)
What are Exocrine glands?
Glands that secrete substances anywhere else other then the bloodstream.
-pancreas (buffers) (is both exo. and endo.)
Also called - the master gland.
Has control over the other endocrine glands.
Size of a peanut.
Is connected to the hypothalamus near the base of the brain.
Produces and stores hormones.
The pituitary gland consists of two lobes
Anterior: secretes and produces certain hormones
posterior: secretes (release) but dose not produces certain hormones
Hypothalamus makes theses.
Human growth hormone. ( none target )
Thyroid stimulating hormone -> metabolism
Adrenocorticotropic hormone -> adrenalin
Follicle stimulating hormone
Girl =egg maturing
Lutenizing hormone. Boys -testosterone girls -ovulation (gonadotropic)
Produce milk (gonadotropic)
Anti diuretic hormone (keep water)
Release milk. -> uterin contractions
1. Natural - the tramp
2. The drip
3. Gell on cervix
4. Break the water
Growth hormone, is a produced by________and promotes the_________
Anterior pituitary, and elongation of the skeleton
~When too much HGH is released
Gigantism - bone plates not fused
Acromegaly - bone plates fused
When too little HGH is released (low amount of HGH)
1 frolichs- the proportion are not right
2 primordial- like a doll
-Located in the base of the neck
-Looks like a butterfly
-It's responsible for production and release of thyroxine and calcitonin
Increases metabolic rate.
60% is heat 40% is converted to energy.
TSH from pituitary stimulates the thyroid witch then release thyroxin into the blood.
Regulates amount of calcium in blood.
Let's calcium into cell, decreasing amount of blood in calcium.
Caused by lack of iodine in diet.
So low thyroxine = high TSH = swollen overstimulated thyroid = goitre
The Adrenal glands are made of......?
Two smaller glands,
Outer- adrenal cortex
Produces epinephrine (adrenalin) and norepinephrine (noradrenalin)
increases heart respiratory rate
(Noradrenalin) ---neurotransmitter [speeds up nervous system]
Cortisol and aldosterone
Eventually increases blood glucose allowing for cell recovery and
-increases sodium retention in the kidney tubules
-causing water to follow staying in the body
FSH -matures follicles
Estrogen- from maturing follicle
- BUILDS ENDOMETRIUM
LH- from pituitary
- causes ovulation
Progesterone- from corpusluteum (old follicles)
-keep endometrium there
Parathyroid releases a hormone called
(PTH) parathyroid hormone.
It inhibits calcitonin
Blood calcium increasing
Both endo and exo
Producing buffers (digestive tract and hormones that regulate blood sugars)
The islets of langerhans are...
Cells in pancreas
That produce - insulin and glucagon
In-cell-in : decreases blood sugar
Muscles and liver become more permeable to glucose
Letting sugar into cells
Help maintain homeostasis
Glucos-be-gone : increase blood sugar
Causes liver to release glucose
Help maintain homeostasis
Affects 2 million Canadians
Caused by inability to produce insulin
If left untreated - blindness, kidney failure, nerve damage, limb amputation and maybe death
:high blood sugar
:low blood sugar
Type 1 diabetes
when pancreas cannot make insulin
Have to take insulin to live
Type 2 diabetes
Decreased insulin production
Or ineffective use.
Can be controlled with diet (exercise and some drugs)
Happens in 3% of woman