Ch. 5- Cell Division Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 5- Cell Division Deck (39):
0

All life depends on...

The ability to reproduce and grow.

1

Asexual reproduction

Producing of offspring identical to themselves.

2

Sexual reproduction

Organisms share genetic info to create a new combination resulting in a unique individual.

3

The cell cycle.

(P,M,A,T)-mitosis
Cytokinesis
G1- growth
S-DNA replication
G2-growth

4

Single cell splits into two

Mother cell to two identical daughter cells.
They continue to divide
Making specialized cells

5

The cell cycle is made of a

division phase and an interphase

6

The division phase is composed of...

Mitosis and cytokines.

7

Interphase involves

Cell growth and DNA replication

8

Chromosome structure

Sister chromatids
Chromatid
Centromere
Kinetochores
---same DNA in each chromatid

9

Chromosomes contain both...

Called chromatin

DNA and proteins

Unduplicated or duplicated

10

Cell division

Interphase
During the G-phases the cell is growing
During the S phases, chromosomes go from Unduplicated to duplicated

11

Stages of mitosis

Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase

12

Prophase

Cell begins to breakdown
Chromosomes begging condense, shorter, and thicker.
Spindle fibres and centrioles begin to form

13

Metaphase

2nd phase of mitosis
Chromosomes(made of sister chromatids) line up on the equator
Spindle fibres attach to chromosomes and centrioles
Chromosomes are entangled

14

Anaphase

3rd phase of mitosis
Centromeres are pulled apart and sister chromatids are separated

15

Telophase

Last phase of mitosis
Spindle fibres dissolve, nuclear membrane forms
Chromosomes begin to de-condense -disappear

16

Cytokinesis

--Right after mitosis
The cytoplasm begins to divide
Pinching cell in half
Completing cel division

17

Cell clock

Cells have a set number of divisions
-age of cells, a reason they stop dividing
Sperm and cancerous cell are the only two cells that divide endlessly

18

Telomeres

Repeating segment on the end of DNA

19

Cloning

Both clone and the parent have the exact same DNA

20

Nature's clones

Identical twins
Fraternal twins
Conjoined

21

Identical twins

Originate from a single egg and a single sperm

22

Fraternal twins

Originate from two eggs and two sperm

23

Conjoined twins

Identical twins not completely separated

24

Abnormal cell division

Cancer cells divide fast, Can divide in isolation
Some cells live longer
Some cells lost their ability to reproduce.

25

Meiosis

Forms sex cells and gametes

26

Diploid cell

2n =46
2 copies

27

Meiosis involves

Two nuclear divisions

28

Meiosis 1 is referred to as

Reduction division
Where 2n turns into n

29

The formation of sex cells during meiosis is called

Gametogensis.
For female it's called oogenesis.
For makes it's called spermatogenesis

30

Karyotype chart

Genetic map.

31

Nondisjunction

Abnormal meiosis
Occurs when 2 homologous chromosomes or 2 sister chromatids fail to separate.

32

Chromosomes 1-22 are.....
23 is......

...autosomes
Sex chromosomes

33

Downs syndrome
Turners syndrome
Kleinfelters syndrome
Edwards syndrome

Trisomy 21
Monopsony 23 x_
Trisomy 23 xxy
Trisomy 18

34

Alteration of gamerution

Organisms that alternate between diploids 2n and haploids n

35

Negative reproduction

Asexual form of reproduction
Ex. Strawberries

36

Fragmentation

Asexual
Hydra budding or starfish

37

Parthogenisis

Asexual
Unfertalized egg becomes an individual
Ex. Honey bees

38

Cloning

-Need a egg and diploid
-Enucleate both
-Take egg cell and put the nucleuse from the diploid inside
-shock cell
--surrogate mother