Ch. 1 - Introduction Flashcards Preview

ANTH-2410H Biological Anthropology > Ch. 1 - Introduction > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 - Introduction Deck (40)
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1

Biological Anthropology

The study of the biological origins, evolution, and contemporary diversity of humans and their primate relatives

2

Variation

Observable differences within a class of objects, the source of which may be genetic or environmental or both in interaction

3

Multidisciplinary

An investigative approach that brings the expertise of a number of disciplines to bear on a particular question within an existing field of study

4

Interdisciplinary

An investigative approach bringing diverse fields together to create a new arena of study

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Anthropology

The global and comparative study of humankind, past and present

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Holistic

The integrated study of all aspects of human life, biological, cultural, historical, psychological, etc., in order to develop a comprehensive view of the whole of the human condition

7

Pandemic

A disease affecting populations across a large area, typically used in reference to a global occurrence

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Prevalence

The proportion of a population exhibiting a particular feature at any one point in time

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Cultural Anthropology

The study of the structure and function of human societies, usually from a cross-cultural perspective

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Ethnography

The comparative study of cultures

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Archaeology

The systematic study of past human lifeways through an analysis of human interactions with and modifications of the environment, including the origin and development of technology

12

Anthropological Linguistics

The study of the origin, evolution, and use (social context) of languages

13

Thermoregulation

The adjustment of body temperature within a normal physiological range under varying environmental conditions

14

Biocultural

A research perspective that recognizes the interrelationship of biology and the many facets of culture, including technology and social behaviour

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Applied Anthropology

A subfield emphasizing project-based, problem-oriented, practical applications of anthropological knowledge

16

Cranial Morphology

The relative size and shape configuration of the various bones of the skull

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Community-Based Research

An approach in which investigators work directly with a community to develop, organize, and implement a research program

18

Isotope

A measurable form of a chemical element varying in the number of subatomic particles (protons and neurons) – e.g., 12C and 14C are different isotopes of carbon, with the latter having two extra protons

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Isotope

A measurable form of a chemical element varying in the number of subatomic particles (protons and neurons) – e.g., 12C and 14C are different isotopes of carbon, with the latter having two extra protons

20

Paleopathology

Literally, the study of ancient disease and trauma

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Paleoanthropology

The study of human evolution through fossils and the circumstances in which they are found

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Hominin

A term inclusive of modern humans and their bipedal ancestors

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Taxon

A formal designation of biological classification (pl.taxa) – e.g., we are all members of the taxon Homo sapiens

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Human Biology

A branch of biological anthropology that examines modern population diversity

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Anthropometry

The measurement of body form

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Hypoxia

Low oxygen availability, characteristically associated with high altitude

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Adaptability

The tendency for an organism to achieve increased functional capacity through a modification of the body form and/or physiological pathway when faced with an environmental stressor.

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Molecular Anthropology

The study of population diversity at the level of the gene and its products (both structural and regulatory proteins)

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid, the fundamental genetic material of life

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Genome

The total complement of an organism's DNA