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Flashcards in Ch 1 Science and astronomy Deck (27)
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1

What unit of measurement do we use to describe distances between stars?

Ly

2

What unit of measurement do we use for the distance between planets?

AU

3

"All zebras have stripes" is an example of a what?

Hypothesis

4

what is the smallest distance ever measured?

10 ^(-18)

5

How far is the earth from the sun?
How far is Jupiter?

1 AU
5.2AU

6

What is the speed of light?

3x10^5 km/s

7

How big is the Milkyway?

Approx. 100 000ly in diameter. (6 billion AU)

8

How far away is the sun from the center of the milkyway?

26 000 ly

9

The MIlkyway is how far from the next closest galaxy?
Name it.

2500 000 ly
Andromeda

10

Closest star to earth?

alpha-centauri -. 4.4 ly

11

What do we primarily communicate with, whenever we call or text or listen to our radio?

Light

12

What side of the moon is illuminated during the new moon?

The farside

13

How can we quantify new experiences?

By comparing them to a standardized experience. (ex, comparing something large to a meter, a colour to a colour wheel, a temperature with a thermometer/)

14

Direct knowledge example

How do we convert direct knowledge to indirect knowledge

We see colour.
we feel temperature.

We use the scientific method to critically jdge experiences and relate them to knowledge/ theory about why the experience happened.

15

Define inductive reasoning.
State an example

Generalizing knowledge from specific observations

ex. throw a ball up 100 times. it comes down every time
therefore, everytime I throw a ball up, it will come down.

16

What is the problem with inductive reasoning?

YOu can never perform an experiment an infinite number of times, so we can never be sure if a is always true.

17

Define Deductive reasoning, with example

Start with a premise, deduce a logical outcome.

ex.
IF all things with ass attract each other gravitationally,
THEN the gravity between the earth and the ball causes it to come back down.

18

Differences between a Theory and a Hypothesis

A hypothesis is simply an idea or proposed explaination. A theory has made specific predictions that have withstood many tests and has been "proven".
Theories are based on wide ranges of data.

19

What are the three parts of the Scientific method?
At which stage can one enter the method? how does one get from one part to another?

Theory ->(dedecutove reasoning)->
Prediction->(ingenuity)->
Experiment -> (inductive reasoning)->
theory.
circular, can enter at any point
see brackets ()

20

What are two important aspects of scientific theory?

1. Falsifiability. This is an absolute must for science.
2. experiments must be repeatable for a theory to hold.

21

Why is homeopathy not a scientific theory?

Homeopathic experiments are not repeatable.

22

what are two things that scientific theories should generally be?

Simple and elegant.
simple: no unneccesary claims. If one part is wrong, all of it must be thrown out.

Elegant: Should tie multiple phenomena together so that the resulting understanding is greater than it's individual parts.

But just because they are simple and elegant does not make them good or true.

23

Is astrology
Simple?
Elegant?
Repeatable?
Falsifiable?

yes.
yes.
no.
yes.

rejected bc no on one of to important things.

24

Aristotles theory on lunar eclipses being caused the round earth casting a shadow on the moon due to it being on the opposite side of the sun and blocking it out.

falsifiable
repeatable
simple
elegant
wow. the trifecta.

25

the following is an example of what?
“Every course I take in university has been hard, therefore this course is going to be hard.”

Inductive reasoning

26

How old is the universe approximately?

14 billion years.

27

True or false:
The simpler the theory, the less likely it is to be disproved?

true