How can you differentiate arteriolosclerosis and atherosclerosis easily?
Arteriolosclerosis = arterioles narrowing
Atherosclerosis = intimal plaque obstructing flow
hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, and smoking are what kinds of risk factors for what?
Modifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis
Age, gender, and genetics are what kinds of risk factors for what? Give me how each is risky?
Nonmodifiable risk factors of atherosclerosis
Age = # and severity of lesion increase with age
Gender = increased risk in males and postmenopausal females; estrogen is protective
Genetics = family hx is highly predictive of risk
Types of arteries involved in atherosclerosis versus arteriolosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis = medium/large (abdominal aorta, coronary a, popliteal a, internal carotid a)
Arteriolosclerosis = small arterioles narrowing
What are foam cells?
When do fatty streaks arise?
damaged endothelium of bvs allows lipid leakage into intima, macrophages consume the oxidized lipids (foam cells)
Flat yellow lesions of intima containing foam cells = fatty streak arise in early life (present in teens)
4 main complications of atherosclerosis to worry about?
Stenosis of medium sized vessels = impaired blood flow >> ischemia (Peripheral vascular disease, angina, ischemic bowel disease)
Plaque rupture w/thrombosis results in MI (coronary a) and stroke (MCA)
Plaque rupture w/emobolization
Weakening of vessel wall results in aneurysm
What are the two types of arteriolosclerosis?
hyaline and hyperplastic types
What type of arteriolosclerosis is a consequence of long standing benign HTN or diabetes?
What type of arteriolosclerosis is a consequence of malignant HTN?
proteins leaking into vessel wall produces vascular thickening
classically produces glomerular scarring that slowly progesses to chronic renal failure
end organ ischemia due to reduced vessel caliber
thickening of vessel wall smooth muscle (onion skin appearance)
end organ ischemia
may lead to fibrinoid necrosis of bv with hemorrhage
classically causes acute renal failure, flea bitten appearance