Flashcards in Ch 12: Vasculitis, Tumors Deck (17)
This condition is marked by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation and vasculitis of small and medium sized vessels. Respiratory involvement includes sinusitis, cough, hemoptysis, and pleuritis
Also: Positive C-ANCA, may involve kidney and eye
Vasculitis characterized by infiltrates of eosinophils and asthma
Hypoxemia, recurrent pulmonary emboli, increased volume of the pulmonary circuit, and left ventricular failure can all lead to what?
-A variety of causes all leading to hypertrophy of the pulmonary arteries and eventual intimal fibrosis of the pulmonary arteries. Hypoxemia can be the result of extreme obesity or kyphoscoliosis.
This type of lung carcinoma is histologically marked by keratin pearls or intracellular bridges. Typically seen in smokers, especially male smokers.
Squamous cell carcinomas
-Most laryngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinomas!
Upon examining a 65 year old males chest xray you notice a "coin" lesion with a "popcorn" pattern of calcification. Further analysis shows it to be a benign lesion in the periphery of the lung. What is it?
Benign tumor composed of elements usually present in the lung: cartilage, fibromyxoid connective tissue, fat, bone
Carcinoma histologically marked by glands or mucin found in the periphery of the lung
Often associated with pleural fibrosis and subpleural scars. Most common tumor of nonsmokers and female smokers. Precursor is Atypical Adenomatous Hyperplasia
Poorly differentiated atypical neoplastic cells with no evidence of keratin pearls, intracellular bridges, glands, or mucin. What type of cancer?
Large cell carcinoma
A diagnosis of exclusion- doesn't fit the other categories. Usually prominent nucleoli and vesicular chromatin.
Carcinoma marked by cells that grow along preexisting alveolar walls. It can present similarly to pneumonia and is not linked to smoking
This highly malignant tumor arises from neuroendocrine cells and is strongly associated with smoking. Paraneoplastic syndromes are associated with these tumors.
Small cell carcinoma
Scant cytoplasm in these cells. Grow and metastasize rapidly. Distinctive nuclei with absent nucleoli in these cells. High mitotic rates and express neuroendocrine markers such as synaptophysin
This tumor is derived from well differentiated neuroendocrine cells. They typically form in the wall of a major bronchus and cells have eosinophilic, granular cytoplasm.
Not affiliated with smoking. 2 subtypes- typical and atypical (increased mitoses, tumor necrosis, increased cellularity, nuclear pleomorphism).
After asbestos exposure, patients will typically present with pleural involvement. What type of cancer do they have?
Also affects peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis of the testis. Does not invade pulmonary parenchyma. First presentation may be pleural effusion or pleural mass, chest pain, weight loss, or malaise.
A patient is told they have the most common cancer of the lung and that imaging reveals random round masses scattered throughout the lung parenchyma. What type of cancer do they have?
Commonly involves liver and bone as well.
Excess fluid in the pleural cavity
Pleural effusion that resembles water. Commonly the result of increased hydrostatic pressure in patients with heart failure
Turbid pleural effusion containing many neutrophils
Usually caused by bacterial pneumonia that extends to the pleura. Can be caused by a penetrating wound
Thick pus accumulates in the pleural cavity, often with loculation and fibrosis
A variant of pyothorax. Both follow any infection that extends to the pleura