Ch. 10 b Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10 b Deck (31):
1

Paresis

Partial paralysis or weakness

2

Paralysis

Complete lack of strength, inability to move

3

Atrophy

Shrinking muscle tissue, lack of contraction

  • Disuse: Mild to moderate
  • Denervation (neurogenic): Disconnected from its nerve supply

4

Involuntary Muscle Contractions

Heavy work, dehydration or electrolyte imbalances 

5

Muscle Spasms

Temporary, involuntary contraction of muscle

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

6

Muscle cramps

Spasm that lasts longer

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

7

Fasciculations

Involuntary contraction of whole motor unit (ex: eye twitch)

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

8

Myoclonus

Ex: almost asleep and jerk awake

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

9

Tremor

  • Involuntary oscillation/movement of limb or body part
    • Rest: present at rest, gone w/movement
    • Intension: present during movement, not at rest 

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

10

Fibrillations

Undetectable depolarization of one single muscle fiber

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

11

Hypotonia (flaccidity)

  • Damage to LMN's
    • NO tone what so ever
    • Feel like jello, soft and squishy

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

12

Spastic Hypertonia

  • Too much tone
  • Velocity dependent

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

13

Rigid Hypertonia

  • Too much tone
  • NOT velocity dependent - always there

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

14

Cerebral Shock

Neurons in head don’t function (ex: after stroke) for short period of time

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

15

Spinal Shock

Neurons around spinal cord - don’t work for short period of time

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

16

What are the signs & symptoms of LMN disorders?

  • Loss of reflexes - dimished stretch reflex
  • Atrophy of degeneration - complete atrophy
  • Disorders of muscle tone (hypotonia/flaccidity)
  • Paralysis ("flaccid" paralysis)
  • Fibrillations

Examples: Peripheral nerve injury, post-polio syndrome, ALS

17

What are the signs & symptoms of UMN disorders?

  • Paresis/paralysis ("spastic" paralysis) - local stretch reflexs grows (hypertonisity)
  • Loss of fractionation of movement - damage to lat corticospical
  • Abnormal reflexes
    • Abnormal cutaneous reflexes
    • Muscle stretch hyperflexia/Spacticity
  • Hypertonia
  • Disorders of muscle contractions
  • Muscle Hyperstiffness

18

What is an abnormal cutaneous reflex?

Ex: Babinski

Normal - stroke bottom of foot, big toe goes down

Abnormal - stroke bottom of foot, big toe goes up

19

What is Spastic Hypertonia?

What disorder can cause this?

  • Same as spacticity/hyperreflexia
  • Ex: Spinal cord injury

20

What are the two types of Hyperreflexia/Spacticity?

  1. Clonus: repeating hyperreflexia or repeating
  2. Clasp-knife response: muscle stretched quickly tightens fast, then relaxes

21

What is Rigid Hypertonia?

What disorder can cause this?

  • NOT velocity dependent
  • Result of extra AP's  coming down from damaged brain.
    • LMN constantly rigid
  • Ex: Parkinson's Disease

22

Decerebrate Rigidity

limbs and trunk extended

Upper limbs IR & feet plantar flexed

(arm point down like cerebellum below cortex)

23

Decorticate Rigidity

lower limbs extended and feet plantarflexed

Upper limbs flexed

(arms point up toward cerebral cortex)

24

What is Muscle Overactivity?

What disorder can cause this?

  • Activity dependent
  • Helper's acting w/o direction
  • Ex: Stroke

25

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Delayed Initiation

Muscles don’t turn on fast enough

26

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Slow force production

Muscles don’t develop as muscle force as they need as quick as they need

 

27

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Prolonged contraction time

 

Damaged brain doesn’t let muscles relax in time

28

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Disordered coordination of agonists and antagonists

Abnormally strong co-contraction

29

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Decreased fractionation

Damage to lateral corticospinal system

(biggest director/controller of fractionation)

30

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Abnormal (“stereotyped”) muscle synergies

31

What are the 4 types of Muscle Hyperstiffness?

  • Myoplastic Hyperstiffness
    • mechanical stiffness - NOT due to inc tone
    • contractures, atrophy of fast twitch fibers
  • Spasticity (Muscle stretch hyperreflexia)
    • UMN's damaged = reflex loop stronger
  • Rigidity
    • NON-velocity dependent hypertonia
  • Muscle Overactivity
    • ex: helpers get the message, directors can control