Ch. 10 b Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 10 b Deck (31):
1

Paresis

Partial paralysis or weakness

2

Paralysis

Complete lack of strength, inability to move

3

Atrophy

Shrinking muscle tissue, lack of contraction

  • Disuse: Mild to moderate
  • Denervation (neurogenic): Disconnected from its nerve supply

4

Involuntary Muscle Contractions

Heavy work, dehydration or electrolyte imbalances 

5

Muscle Spasms

Temporary, involuntary contraction of muscle

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

6

Muscle cramps

Spasm that lasts longer

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

7

Fasciculations

Involuntary contraction of whole motor unit (ex: eye twitch)

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

8

Myoclonus

Ex: almost asleep and jerk awake

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

9

Tremor

  • Involuntary oscillation/movement of limb or body part
    • Rest: present at rest, gone w/movement
    • Intension: present during movement, not at rest 

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

10

Fibrillations

Undetectable depolarization of one single muscle fiber

(Type of Involuntary Muscle Contraction)

11

Hypotonia (flaccidity)

  • Damage to LMN's
    • NO tone what so ever
    • Feel like jello, soft and squishy

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

12

Spastic Hypertonia

  • Too much tone
  • Velocity dependent

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

13

Rigid Hypertonia

  • Too much tone
  • NOT velocity dependent - always there

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

14

Cerebral Shock

Neurons in head don’t function (ex: after stroke) for short period of time

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

15

Spinal Shock

Neurons around spinal cord - don’t work for short period of time

(Type of Abnormal Muscle Tone)

16

What are the signs & symptoms of LMN disorders?

  • Loss of reflexes - dimished stretch reflex
  • Atrophy of degeneration - complete atrophy
  • Disorders of muscle tone (hypotonia/flaccidity)
  • Paralysis ("flaccid" paralysis)
  • Fibrillations

Examples: Peripheral nerve injury, post-polio syndrome, ALS

17

What are the signs & symptoms of UMN disorders?

  • Paresis/paralysis ("spastic" paralysis) - local stretch reflexs grows (hypertonisity)
  • Loss of fractionation of movement - damage to lat corticospical
  • Abnormal reflexes
    • Abnormal cutaneous reflexes
    • Muscle stretch hyperflexia/Spacticity
  • Hypertonia
  • Disorders of muscle contractions
  • Muscle Hyperstiffness

18

What is an abnormal cutaneous reflex?

Ex: Babinski

Normal - stroke bottom of foot, big toe goes down

Abnormal - stroke bottom of foot, big toe goes up

19

What is Spastic Hypertonia?

What disorder can cause this?

  • Same as spacticity/hyperreflexia
  • Ex: Spinal cord injury

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20

What are the two types of Hyperreflexia/Spacticity?

  1. Clonus: repeating hyperreflexia or repeating
  2. Clasp-knife response: muscle stretched quickly tightens fast, then relaxes

21

What is Rigid Hypertonia?

What disorder can cause this?

  • NOT velocity dependent
  • Result of extra AP's  coming down from damaged brain.
    • LMN constantly rigid
  • Ex: Parkinson's Disease

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22

Decerebrate Rigidity

limbs and trunk extended

Upper limbs IR & feet plantar flexed

(arm point down like cerebellum below cortex)

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23

Decorticate Rigidity

lower limbs extended and feet plantarflexed

Upper limbs flexed

(arms point up toward cerebral cortex)

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24

What is Muscle Overactivity?

What disorder can cause this?

  • Activity dependent
  • Helper's acting w/o direction
  • Ex: Stroke

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25

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Delayed Initiation

Muscles don’t turn on fast enough

26

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Slow force production

Muscles don’t develop as muscle force as they need as quick as they need

 

27

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Prolonged contraction time

 

Damaged brain doesn’t let muscles relax in time

28

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Disordered coordination of agonists and antagonists

Abnormally strong co-contraction

29

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Decreased fractionation

Damage to lateral corticospinal system

(biggest director/controller of fractionation)

30

Disorders of muscle contraction:

Abnormal (“stereotyped”) muscle synergies

31

What are the 4 types of Muscle Hyperstiffness?

  • Myoplastic Hyperstiffness
    • mechanical stiffness - NOT due to inc tone
    • contractures, atrophy of fast twitch fibers
  • Spasticity (Muscle stretch hyperreflexia)
    • UMN's damaged = reflex loop stronger
  • Rigidity
    • NON-velocity dependent hypertonia
  • Muscle Overactivity
    • ex: helpers get the message, directors can control