Ch. 1: Intro to Neuroscience Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 1: Intro to Neuroscience Deck (107):
1

Define:

Rostral

 

Toward th top of nervous system (nose)

Top of neural tube bends so this can be different than superior

2

Define:

Caudal

Bottom of neural tube

3

What plane is shown?

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Horizontal section

4

What plane is shown?

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Coronal

5

What plane is shown?

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Midsagittal

6

Which are the support cells of the nervous system?

A. White matter

B. Grey matter

White matter

7

Which is associated with long processes (axons or "wires")?

A. White matter

B. Grey matter

White matter

8

Which is insulated?

A. White matter

B. Grey matter

White matter

9

What are other names for white matter?

  • Tract
  • Lemniscus
  • Fasiculus
  • Column
  • Peduncle
  • Capsule

10

Which one is neural tissue?

A. White matter

B. Grey matter

Grey matter

11

Which is made up of cell bodies (soma)?

A. White matter

B. Grey matter

Grey matter

12

Where are white and grey matter located in the brain?

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13

What is a Ganglion?

Cluster of cell bodies (grey matter) in peripheral nervous system → outside brain and spinal cord

14

What is a Nucleus?

Cluster of cell bodies (grey matter) in central nervous system → inside brain or spinal cord

15

Where are signals created in the brain?

How are they transported?

Created in cell bodies (grey matter)

Transported through axons (white matter)

16

In the peripheral nervous system, what do the afferent axons do?

Sensory function

Carry infro toward middle of body and up

17

In the peripheral nervous system, what do the efferent axons do?

Motor function and action

Carry information down and out

18

How many spinal segments are there?

How are the grouped?

31 total

8 - cervical

12 - thoracic

5 - lumbar

5 - sacral

1 - coccygeal

19

Define:

Ventral Root

Motor in function

Efferent in nature

20

Define:

Dorsal Root (and dorsal root ganglion)

Sensory in function

Afferent in nature

21

What is a spinal nerve?

Where 2 roots (ventral and dorsal) join together

Has both sensory & motor neurons

22

The spinal nerve breaks into what 3 parts?

  • Dorsal ramus
  • Ventral ramus
  • Rami communicantes

23

The dorsal ramus goes to the _______

Back

24

The ventral ramus goes to the _______

front

(arms and legs)

25

What is the Rami Communicantes?

Autonomic piece

26

What are spinal columns?

Places in spinal cord where wires are bundled together

27

What are the names of the 3 spinal columns

and where are the located?

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28

What are the 2 functions of the spinal cord?

  1. Conduct Information: transmit info up/down quickly (white matter)
  2. Process Information: bring info together (grey matter)
    • happens where there are connections

29

When does the spinal cord become the brainstem?

SUPERIOR to the Foramen Magnum

30

What 4 cranial nerves are associated with the Medulla?

  • IX - Glossopharyngeal
    • swallowing, salivation and taste
  • X - Vagus
    • regulates viscera, swallowing, speech and taste
  • XI - Spinal Accessory
    • elevates shoulders, turns head
  • XII - Hypoglossal
    • moves tounge

31

What is the Pyramid

and where is it located?

Two bumps on either side of midline of FRONT of medulla

Contains all motor axons from brain to body

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32

What is the "Decussation" of the Pyramids

and where is it located?

Crossing over at the most caudal part of the pyramids

Where all motor axons cross

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33

What are the 2 major structures of the Medulla?

  1. Pyramids
  2. Decussation of the pyramids

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34

What 4 cranial nerves are associated with the Pons?

Only one in Pons:

  • V - Trigeminal
    • facial sensation, chewing, sensation from temporomandibular joint

Exist at border of Pons and Medulla:

  • VI - Abducens
    • abducts pupil of eye
  • VII - Facial
    • facial expression, closes eyes, tears, salivation, and taste
  • VIII - Vestibulocochlear 
    • sensation of head position relative to gravity and head movement; hearing

35

What is the prominate structure of the Pons?

What does it do

Bulge

  • Anterior surface of Pons
  • Cerebellar connections
    • motor nerves from brain -> pons -> cerebellum
    • Asks, "Does movement match the plan?"

36

What 3 components make up the Brainstem?

  • Midbrain - most rostral
  • Pons
  • Medulla

37

What 2 cranial nerves are associated with the Midbrain?

  • III - Occulomotor
    • moves pupil of the eye up, down, medially; raises upper eyelid; constricts pupil
  • IV - Trochlear
    • moves pupil of the eye medially and down

38

What are the 2 prominant structures of the Midbrain?

  1. Cerebral peduncles
  2. Tectum

39

What are the Cerebral Peduncles

and where are they located?

Bundles of white matter containing motor wiring → continues through pons and into medulla as the "pyramids"

Anterior surface of midbrain

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40

What is the Tectum

and where is it located?

  • Has 4 bumps called colliculi
    • Superior Colliculi (top 2)
      • wires and connections - visual pathways
    • Inferior Colliculi (bottom 2)
      • wires and connections - hearing

 

  • The roof or backside of the midbrain (sensory)

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41

What does the cerebellum do?

Coordination and voluntary movements

Compares reality to plan for movement

42

What do the divided parts of the cerebellum control?

  • R & L Hemispheres: control extremities
  • Midline (Vermis): controls core

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43

What is the Diencephalon or Thalamus

and where is it located?

collection of nuclei (cell bodies) - process sensation

Base of brain

44

What is the Basil Ganglia

and where is it located?

Cluster of cell bodies INSIDE brain (breaks the rule)

Involved with motor function and motor planning

Anterior to Thalamus

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45

What is a sulcus?

Shallow depression in brain surface

46

What is a fissure?

Very deep sulcus/rut in brain surface

47

What is a gyrus?

Mound or bulge out of brain surface

48

What is a lobe?

geographical area of brain with common function

49

Where is the Frontal Lobe

and what does it do?

Motor and executive function

Goal setting, planning, dreaming for future while awake

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50

Where is the Parietal Lobe

and what does it do?

Sensory function

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51

Where is the Temporal Lobe

and what does it do?

Auditory function (behind ears)

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52

Where is the Occipital Lobe

and what does it do?

Processing vision

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53

Where is the Limbic Lobe

and what does it do?

Emotion

 

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54

Where is the Insular Lobe located?

Piece of surface/cortex folded in on side and is insulated

55

What is the deep depression that separates the right and left hemispheres?

Longitudinal Fissure

56

What is the purpose of a Sulci?

Distinguish lobes from each other

57

What is the central sulcus?

lateral aspect of brain: 

separates frontal and parietal lobe

separates motor from sensory

58

What is the lateral sulcus?

lateral aspect of brain: 

separates the temporal lobe from the frontal and parietal lobes

59

What is the parietoocipital sulcus?

medial aspect of brain: 

separates parietal from occipital

separates body sensation from vision

60

What is the cingulate sulcus?

medial aspect of brain: 

separates limbic lobe from everythong else

61

What is the precentral gyrus?

Mound in front of central sulcus

Conscious motor function

62

What is the postcentral gyrus?

Mound behind central sulcus

conscious sensation from body

63

What is the corpus callosum?

broad bundle of wires - floor of longitudinal fissure

connects R & L hemisphere

64

What is the internal capsule?

bundle of white matter - connects all sensory & motor function from one side of brain to the other side face and body

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65

What does the cerebral fluid system do?

  • mechanically cushions brain and spinal cord
  • regulates extracellular milieu and protects the CNS (chemically and mechanically)

66

What is the Choroid Plexus

and where is it located?

Thin walled, leaky capillary: strains formed elements and releases plasma into ventricle

Situated in R & L ventricle

67

What is a ventricle?

Fluid filled space

68

What is the flow of CSF through the ventricles?

Ventricle (R or L) → Foramina of Monro → Third Ventricle → Cerebral Aqueduct → Fourth Ventricle → Leak out 3 foramina at bottom [Foramina of Luscha (2) and Foramen of Magendie (1)]

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69

What structures are anterior and posterior to the

Cerebral Aqueduct?

Anterior: Midbrain

Posterior: Tectum

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70

What structures are anterior and posterior to the

Fourth Ventricle?

Anterior: Pons

Posterior: Cerebellum

71

Is CSF found within the spinal cord?

Not under normal circumstances. It is AROUND the spinal cord, but not in it.

72

What are the 3 layers of Meninges covering the brain and spinal cord?

  1. Dura Mater (Superficial)
  2. Arachnoid Mater
  3. Pia Mater (Deep)

73

What is the function of the

Dura Mater?

Tough outter menigial layer

Prevents shifting of skull

74

What are the two layers of Dura Mater?

  • Outer Layer: always applied to the skull
  • Inner Layer: can break off and divide into brain creating pockets

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75

What is the Falx Cerebri?

Functions?

  • Inner layer of dura mater diving into longitudinal fissure
  • Prevents hemispheres from hitting against eachother

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76

What is the Tentorium Cerebelli?

Functions?

  • Inner layer of dura mater diving occipital and cerebellum
  • Cushions occipital lobe and cerebellum

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77

What is the space created when outer and inner layer of dura mater separate?

Dural Sinus

Void or space filled with used up CSF (aka gutters)

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78

What is the function and location of the

Arachnoid Mater?

  • Spider web like middle layer. Closely applied to dura mater and trails web down to brain
  • Forms Subarachnoid Space: contains outside water balloon

79

What is an Arachnoid Villi?

Single, finger like projection pokes through dura mater and into sinus

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80

What is an Arachnoid Granulation?

  • The cluster of grapes on the end of an Arachnoid Villi
  • Lets CSF leak into sinus on its way back to the heart

81

What is the function and location of the

Pia Mater?

  • Sits on brain itself. Adheres to tissue on brain.
  • Follows gyri and sulci (contours of the brains)

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82

What is the pattern of CSF circulation from the heart to the brain and back to the heart?

Heart → vertebral arteries → brain space → within brain choroid plexus strains blood → enters 2 lat ventricles → flows down Foramen Monro → 3rd ventricle → cerebral aqueduct → 4th ventricle → 3 foramena/holes → flows int subarachnoid space around outside of brain and spinal cord → pools in sinuses → drain through jugular veins back to heart

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83

True or False:

Peripheral nerves are highly vascularized. Individual Axons are highly dependent on adequate blood supply

True

84

What 3 arteries supply blood to the spinal cord?

Where are they located?

  • 1 Anterior Spinal Artery: at anterior midline
  • 2 Posterior Spinal Arteries:

*Anterior and posterior arteries are connected by a ring of arteries 

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85

What vascular supply comprises the Posterior Circulation or Vertebrobasilar System?

Vascular supply to the

  • Brainstem
  • Cerebellum 
  • Minority of cerebral hemisphere

86

How do the vertebral arteries enter the skull?

  • Ascend spinal column through wings of vertebrae
  • Pierce meninges at Foramen Magnum
  • Enter skull

87

What arteries branch off the vertebral arteries?

What do they supply?

  • Directly supply Medulla
  • Anterior Spinal Artery
  • Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery
    • covers back and bottom of cerebellum
  • Posterior Spinal Arteries

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88

The right & left vertebral arteries join to form what artery?

Basilar Artery

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89

What arteries branch off the Basilar Artery?

What do they supply?

  • Anterior Inferior Cereballar Artery
    • Front bottom of cerebellum
  • Superior Cerebellar Artery
    • Top of cerebellum

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90

What is the main function of the Basilar Artery?

Blood supply to the Pons

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91

Where are the Posterior Cerebral Arteries?

What do they supply?

  • Basilar continues up and splits into these arteries
    • Feed bottom and Occipital Lobe of Cerebrum
    • As it splits a few branches feed Midbrain

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92

What vascular supply comprises the Anterior Circulation?

(Vascular supply to majority of cerebral hemisphere)

  • Internal Carotid Arteries
    • 2 on each side
  • Cerebral Arteries
    • cortical vs deep branches

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93

What do the internal carotid arteries supply?

  • Right & Left Hemisphere
  • Base of Brain
  • Connects with Posterior Circulation

*Comes up in front of basilar artery

94

What do the Internal Carotid Arteries branch into?

The Cerebral Arteries

  • Anterior Cerebral Artery
  • Middle Cerebral Artery

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95

The Anterior Cerebral Artery run?

  • Runs in Longitudinal Fissure
    • One for each hemisphere
  • Covers medial surface of brain, comes out on top of Longitudinal Fissure and is visibal on top surface of Cerebrum

96

What does the Anterior Cerebral Artery supply?

Medial surface of brain (frontal, parietal and limbic lobe - NOT occipital)

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97

Lack of blood to what artery causes lack of coordination?

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery

(Feeds Cerebellum)

98

Where does the Middle Cerebral Artery Run?

  • Through the Lateral Sulcus
  • Runs to lateral aspect of cerebrum

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99

What does the Middle Cerebral Artery Supply?

  • Supplies blood to outside of head
    • Lateral aspect of: frontal, parietal and temporal lobes

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100

What is the purpose of the Circle of Willis?

Connects the artery suppies side to side and front to back

101

What arteries make up the Circle of Willis?

  • Anterior Cerebral Arteries (2)
  • Anterior Communicating Artery (1)
  • Internal Carotid Arteries (2)
  • Posterior Communicating Arteries (2)
  • Posterior Cerebral Arteries (2)

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102

What are the arteries to the deep structures and ventricles?

  • Anterior Choroidal A.
    • Bottom of Basil Ganglia
  • Posterior Choroidal A.
    • Bottom and back of Thalamus

*Choroidal = means deep structures and ventricles

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103

What arteries go to the deep structues only?

  • Medial and Lateral Striate Arteries
    • Deep structures and internal capsule

*Striate = Deep Structures (Basil Ganglia)

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104

What arteries do the deep arteries branch from?

  • Middle Cerbral Artery branches into:
    • Anterior Choroidal A.
    • Medial Striate A.
    • Lateral Striate A.
  • Posterior Cerebral Artery branches into:
    • Posterior Choroidal Artery

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105

What is a Dural Sinus?

  • Created when inner and outer layers of Dura Mater separate creating a space
  • Holds used up CSF blood (and CSF) getting dumped back into heart.

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106

What are the 3 major Dural Sinuses?

  • Superior (Mid)Sagittal Sinus
  • Inferior Sagittal Sinus
  • Transvere Sinus

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107

How does used up CSF and blood move from Dural Sinus back to the heart?

Dumps from Superior and Inferior Sagittal Sinus into Transverse Sinus

Then, down Internal Jugular Vein

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