Ch. 14: Schizophrenia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 14: Schizophrenia Deck (40):
1

What is schizophrenia?

A psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorates as a result of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities.

2

What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

pathological excesses, or bizarre additions, to a person’s behavior

3

What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?

pathological deficits, characteristics that are lacking in a person

4

What are some delusions that occur in schizophrenia?

Delusions of grandeur, persecution, reference (attaching special meaning to actions of others), control

5

What are some types of hallucinations?

Auditory, visual, tactile, somatic (feels like something is happening inside your body), gustatory (strange taste), olfactory

6

__________ ________: often distracted by sights and sounds; problems with perception and attention

Heightened perceptions

7

What are loose associations?

most common; rapidly shift from one topic to another, unaware they are not making sense

8

What are neologisms?

made-up words that typically have meaning only to patient

9

What is perseveration?

repeat words/statements

10

________ is using words that rhyme but don't make sense.

Clang

11

What is inappropriate affect?

uses emotions that are unsuitable to the situation

12

Reduction in speech content is called __________.

alogia

13

Define avolition?

cannot start or complete a course of action

14

remains motionless and silent for long periods of time

Catatonic stupor

15

– remains in rigid, upright position and resist efforts to be moved

Catatonic rigidity

16

assumes awkward, bizarre positions for long periods of time

Catatonic posturing

17

Catatonic excitement

moves excitedly, may wave arms and legs

18

What is the first phase of schizophrenia?

Prodromal – Symptoms are not yet obvious but patient is beginning to deteriorate

19

What is the 2nd phase of schizophrenia?

Active – Symptoms are apparent; may be triggered by a stressor

20

What is the 3rd phase of schizophrenia?

Residual – return to prodromal level of functioning, although some negative symptoms may remain; 25% recover completely (usually w/good premorbid functioning), remainder may continue in residual phase for remainder of life

21

How does one reach a diagnosis of schizophrenia?

During a one-month period, at least two of the following symptoms are present for a significant portion of time. One or more of the symptoms must be a, b, or c.
a. Delusions
b. Hallucinations
c. Disorganized speech
d. Grossly abnormal psychomotor behavior, including catatonia.
e. Negative symptoms

22

Describe the dopamine hypothesis?

Certain neurons that use dopamine fire too often and transmit too many

23

Describe what's going on with amphetamine research?

high doses of amphetamine can induce amphetamine psychosis. Anti-psychotics can reduce symptoms. Researchers discovered that amphetamines increase dopamine activity in brain.

24

What is 1 challenge to the dopamine theory?

New atypical antipsychotic drugs are more effective but work on other neurotransmitters in addition to dopamine.

25

What is another challenge to the dopamine theory?

Positive symptoms respond well to conventional antipsychotic drugs while negative symptoms respond well to atypical antipsychotic drugs, leaving questions about whether other neurotransmitters are involved in schizophrenia.

26

What are some abnormalities in the brain structure of schizophrenics?

Enlarged ventricles
Smaller gray matter
Smaller temporal and frontal lobes
Abnormal blood flow in certain areas of the brain
Abnormalities in hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus

27

_________ ________ _______ of those with schizophrenia is 5 to 8% higher than for those without schizophrenia (high rates of influenza during those months)

Winter birth rate

28

What is the fingerprint study?

Persons with schizophrenia have significantly more or less ridges on fingerprints. Fingerprints develop in 2nd trimester.

29

Mothers of persons with schizophrenia were more likely to have been exposed to _________ than mothers of persons without schizophrenia

influenza

30

40% of research participants with schizophrenia had __________ to certain viral infections

antibodies

31

Believed that patients who developed schizophrenia had experienced a cold, harsh world (i.e., unnurturing mothers). Patients with schizophrenogenic mothers – cold, domineering, uninterested mothers may contribute to their children developing schizophrenia

Psychodynamic

32

: Have not received appropriate rewards, so tend to other stimuli

Behavioral

33

Agree with biological onset of disorder. Think it worsens after patients are rejected by friends and family that do not believe their thinking. May lead to delusional thinking.

Cognitive

34

What does the sociocultural theory say about schizophrenia?

higher rates among blacks. poor groups have higher rates, developing countries have better recovery rates

35

What is the relationship between schizophrenia and social labeling?

If diagnosis is given when some does not have, it may lead to self-fulfilling prophecy

36

Parents send conflicting messages to children and this may lead to paranoid schizophrenia

Double-bind Communication theory

37

What is the role of family stress in schizophrenia?

– style of criticism and disapproval among family members. Those with schizophrenia are four times more likely to relapse in this type of family environment

38

What is RD Lang's view in the humanistic theory of schizophrenia?

Patients face difficult obstacles and confusing messages from family. They withdraw to their inner concerns to find wholeness. Pts, aren't allowed to continue journey bc docs diagnose them.

39

Style of criticism and disapproval among family members in known as what?

expressed emotion

40

What's the chance of developing schizophrenia in the general pop.?

1%