Flashcards in Ch. 14: Schizophrenia Deck (40):
What is schizophrenia?
A psychotic disorder in which personal, social, and occupational functioning deteriorates as a result of strange perceptions, unusual emotions, and motor abnormalities.
What are the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?
pathological excesses, or bizarre additions, to a person’s behavior
What are negative symptoms of schizophrenia?
pathological deficits, characteristics that are lacking in a person
What are some delusions that occur in schizophrenia?
Delusions of grandeur, persecution, reference (attaching special meaning to actions of others), control
What are some types of hallucinations?
Auditory, visual, tactile, somatic (feels like something is happening inside your body), gustatory (strange taste), olfactory
__________ ________: often distracted by sights and sounds; problems with perception and attention
What are loose associations?
most common; rapidly shift from one topic to another, unaware they are not making sense
What are neologisms?
made-up words that typically have meaning only to patient
What is perseveration?
________ is using words that rhyme but don't make sense.
What is inappropriate affect?
uses emotions that are unsuitable to the situation
Reduction in speech content is called __________.
cannot start or complete a course of action
remains motionless and silent for long periods of time
– remains in rigid, upright position and resist efforts to be moved
assumes awkward, bizarre positions for long periods of time
moves excitedly, may wave arms and legs
What is the first phase of schizophrenia?
Prodromal – Symptoms are not yet obvious but patient is beginning to deteriorate
What is the 2nd phase of schizophrenia?
Active – Symptoms are apparent; may be triggered by a stressor
What is the 3rd phase of schizophrenia?
Residual – return to prodromal level of functioning, although some negative symptoms may remain; 25% recover completely (usually w/good premorbid functioning), remainder may continue in residual phase for remainder of life
How does one reach a diagnosis of schizophrenia?
During a one-month period, at least two of the following symptoms are present for a significant portion of time. One or more of the symptoms must be a, b, or c.
c. Disorganized speech
d. Grossly abnormal psychomotor behavior, including catatonia.
e. Negative symptoms
Describe the dopamine hypothesis?
Certain neurons that use dopamine fire too often and transmit too many
Describe what's going on with amphetamine research?
high doses of amphetamine can induce amphetamine psychosis. Anti-psychotics can reduce symptoms. Researchers discovered that amphetamines increase dopamine activity in brain.
What is 1 challenge to the dopamine theory?
New atypical antipsychotic drugs are more effective but work on other neurotransmitters in addition to dopamine.
What is another challenge to the dopamine theory?
Positive symptoms respond well to conventional antipsychotic drugs while negative symptoms respond well to atypical antipsychotic drugs, leaving questions about whether other neurotransmitters are involved in schizophrenia.
What are some abnormalities in the brain structure of schizophrenics?
Smaller gray matter
Smaller temporal and frontal lobes
Abnormal blood flow in certain areas of the brain
Abnormalities in hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus
_________ ________ _______ of those with schizophrenia is 5 to 8% higher than for those without schizophrenia (high rates of influenza during those months)
Winter birth rate
What is the fingerprint study?
Persons with schizophrenia have significantly more or less ridges on fingerprints. Fingerprints develop in 2nd trimester.
Mothers of persons with schizophrenia were more likely to have been exposed to _________ than mothers of persons without schizophrenia
40% of research participants with schizophrenia had __________ to certain viral infections
Believed that patients who developed schizophrenia had experienced a cold, harsh world (i.e., unnurturing mothers). Patients with schizophrenogenic mothers – cold, domineering, uninterested mothers may contribute to their children developing schizophrenia
: Have not received appropriate rewards, so tend to other stimuli
Agree with biological onset of disorder. Think it worsens after patients are rejected by friends and family that do not believe their thinking. May lead to delusional thinking.
What does the sociocultural theory say about schizophrenia?
higher rates among blacks. poor groups have higher rates, developing countries have better recovery rates
What is the relationship between schizophrenia and social labeling?
If diagnosis is given when some does not have, it may lead to self-fulfilling prophecy
Parents send conflicting messages to children and this may lead to paranoid schizophrenia
Double-bind Communication theory
What is the role of family stress in schizophrenia?
– style of criticism and disapproval among family members. Those with schizophrenia are four times more likely to relapse in this type of family environment
What is RD Lang's view in the humanistic theory of schizophrenia?
Patients face difficult obstacles and confusing messages from family. They withdraw to their inner concerns to find wholeness. Pts, aren't allowed to continue journey bc docs diagnose them.
Style of criticism and disapproval among family members in known as what?