Flashcards in Ch 15 - Adaptive Immune System Deck (22):
The response for the second time your body encounters the same organism?
Why don't you get chicken pox every time you're body has encountered it?
The adaptive immune system has memory, which allows for a more rapid response to a second exposure to the same organism.
Ability of the immune system to ignore a molecule.
Why is it good to have tolerance?
Good to have tolerance to self molecules- we don't want to attack our own tissues.
Is the response of the adaptive immune system generalized or specific?
Specific- there's a different response for every antigen.
What are the two parts of the adaptive immune system?
Cellular immunity and humoral immunity.
What's the difference between humoral and cellular immunity?
Humoral immunity deals with extracellular infections- those in the blood and other fluid while cellular immunity is used for intracellular immunity.
Aka immunoglobulins, Ab's are glycoproteins. There are five classes (MADGE) IgM, IgA, etc. The two regions are the Fab and Fc, the Fab region binds to antigens and the Fc region calls in other immune system cells.
What is the Lymphoid System?
Tissues and organs that help B cells and T cells to come into contact with all antigens that enter the body.
What is the function of lymphatic vessels?
To carry lymph from the blood to the lymph nodes where it is screened for antigens, then return to the blood.
Difference between B cells and T cells- where they mature.
T cells mature in the thymus and B cells mature in the bone marrow.
What is the primary lymphoid organ and what does it do?
Bone marrow- hematopoietic stem cells for all T and B cells, B cells mature here
What are the secondary lymphoid tissues? What is there function for the lymph system?
Spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, appendix, SALT, MALT.
SALT- skin associated lymphoid tissue
MALT- mucosa associated lymphoid tissue
- allow B cells, T cells, dendritic cells, etc. to exchange info w each other
What are the five types of protection provided by Ab's?
Neutralization, immobilization, agglutination, opsonization, complement activation by the classical pathway
What is neutralization?
Bacterial toxins surrounded by Ab that make it so the antigens can no longer interact w cells
Bacteria/ viruses can't attach to self cells
Causes antigens to clump or precipitate together, makes it easier for macrophages to swallow all at once
Easier for macrophages to phagocytosis bc they recognize the Fc portion of the Ab
What are the different types of T cells?
Cytotoxic, T helper 1, T helper 2
Cytotoxic - MHC, Response
Helper 1 - MHC, Response
Helper 2 - MHC, Response
C- MHC 1, apoptosis (perforin and protease)
H1- MHC 2, gives macrophages permission to be activated
H2 - MHC 2, gives B cells permission to make effector lymphocytes & Ab's
Describe the response of a cytotoxic T cell
Once it finds an Ag it recognizes on a MHC1 molecule, it binds to it and releases cytokines directly at the cell. Perforin and protease are used to induce apoptosis; perforin to out a hole in the infected self cell, protease to go thru the hole and induce apoptosis