Flashcards in Test 1 - Ch's 1,2,3 Deck (81):
before nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles
has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles
using microbes to clean up pollution
Define: emerging disease
new diseases or ones that were once rare but are now becoming more common
the science of naming; all living things are given a universal scientific name
Which of the three domains of life contain organisms with peptidoglycan in the cell walls?
Tell which domain has prokaryotic organisms, are mostly unicellular, have DNA or RNA, and have peptidoglycan in cell walls.
Which domain has eukaryotes, is uni- or multicellular, and producers or consumers
Domain that is usually unicellular organisms, prokaryotic, DNA, lives in extreme environments, and has cell walls
Why are viruses not considered living things?
They cannot reproduce sexually nor asexually.
Why are prions not considered living things?
Cannot reproduce and made entirely of proteins, no DNA or RNA.
How would you format a binomial nomenclature?
Genus first, capitalized; second word specific epithet, lowercase; either typed in italics or underlined by hand
Define: dehydration synthesis
The creation of large molecules by removal of water
What characterizes the tertiary level of protein structure?
Globular and fibrous 3D shapes
Define: changing a protein's shape to make it nonfunctional
Which of the following is not digestible by animals?
starch, chitin, glycogen, protein
Which one is NOT a macromolecule?
polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, nucleotides, carbohydrate, nucleic acids, and starch
Define: the breakdown of large molecules by the enzymatic addition of water
smaller units, that when brought together compose a macromolecule
What is the ratio of C to H to O in carbohydrates?
1:2:1 - C:H:O
What structure do plants store their excess carbohydrates?
What molecule is used to energy by animals (polysaccharide?)
Which one of these five molecules would be the least digested by humans?
oil, starch, protein, cellulose, sugar
Name the four macromolecule of life and their monomers
Carbohydrates - monosaccharides
Proteins - amino acids
Nucleic Acids - nucleotides
Lipids - fatty acids and glycerol
What is the name for the type of bond between amino acids?
Describe the secondary structure of proteins
both helical and sheetlike
How many levels of protein structure are there?
Describe the quaternary structure of protein structure and give an example
More than one amino acid chain is present in the protein; hemoglobin has four separate chains, all in their tertiary structures
What is the word used to describe the different ways the two strands of DNA interact?
How are human ribosomes different from bacterial ribosomes?
Human ribosomes are bigger
Compare: 70S v 80S
What structures in bacterial cells contain extrachromosomal DNA and how does it help the cell survive
Plasmids; able to exchange with other cells to spread genetic material, which allow them to spread the genes to resist antibiotics
Define: glycocalyx; tell 2 functions
gel like layer around the bacterial cell; capsule is it is gelatinous; slime layer if it is diffuse and irregular;
helps bact avoid the immune syst and form biofilms (mass of bact coating a surface, ex: plaque on teeth)
Type of pili used for attachment to surfaces
Define: term used by bact to sense and respond to chemical signals
Define: bact moving in response to light
Define: bact moving in response to O2 concentration
Define: basal body
Part of the flagella that attaches to the cell membrane
Define: proton motive force
Separation of charge across a membrane
Give an example of when bact use proton motive force
pump waste molecules out of the cell - antiporter and effilux
Define: process used to make endospores
Name a genus of bact that is capable of making endospores
What types of transport require transport proteins?
Active transport and facilitated diffusion
Which type of transport requires energy from the cell?
Why is active transport the only type to require energy form the cell
Because it moves molecules against their concentration gradient
What characteristic do both Gram + & Gram - bact have in common?
Cell wall has peptidoglycan
What are characteristics of the cell walls of bact that are Gram +
cell wall is thick, contains teichoic and leipoteichoic acids
What are characteristics of the cell walls of bact that are Gram -
call wall is thin and has LPS, lipopolysaccharide bilayer
Who was the first person to see a microorganism?
What is Antony van Leeuwenhoek known for?
First to see bacteria, under a ground glass lens
What is spontaneous Generation?
Idea that microbes could spontaneously appear
Who were the two scientists that proved Spontaneous Generation was not true
Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall
What are the three nonliving agents that cause disease?
Viruses, prions, and viroids
Which of the three nonliving agents are not known to cause human disease, but plant?
What does Anthrax do?
When endospores are inhaled, germinate in the lungs and cause pneumonia
Describe kingdom Plantae
- not microscopic
- producers thru photosynthesis
Describe kingdom Animalia
- mostly not microscopic, but does have microscopic worms
Describe kingdom Protista
- considered microbes
- mostly unicellular
- some producers - "algae"
- some consumers - "protozoa"
Describe kingdom Fungi
- some microbes, but not all
- decomposers, consumers - feed off of dead and decaying matter
Describe how prions cause disease
When the abnormal protein find the normal version, it causes the normal version to change shape (rmmbr denaturation), making it abnormal as well
* This is NOT reproduction, this is conversion
What are the most abundant elements in living things?
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen
Define: atomic #
Define: mass #/ atomic weight
Proton + neutrons
Don't forget the bonds bitch
ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, hydrogen
Under 7 acidic
Over 7 basic
Acids have more H+ ions
Bases have more OH- ions
What are buffers?
Molecules that resists changes in pH, keeping it constant, but not necessarily neutral
Define: carbohydrate molecules that have more than one monomer, and give another name
Oligosaccharides, but disaccharides is more common bc it means 2 monomers
ex: sucrose and lactose
Differentiate between starch and cellulose
Cellulose is very similar in structure to starch, buy is not used for energy storage, rather reinforces and gives structure to plants, found in their cell walls.
Function of Glycogen
Glycogen is an energy storage polysaccharide in animals because it is easily broken down by adding water, which is important to be able to convert to glucose and put back into the bloodstream to stabilize blood sugar
Characteristics and functions of chitin
Chitin is a polysaccharide that canNOT be broken down by hydrolysis. Found in the cell walls of fungi, are not digestible by humans, like cellulose. Also found in the exoskeletons of insects, crabs, lobsters, etc.
Polysaccharides can perform one of two functions. What are these two function?
Structure and energy storage.
What is the structure of DNA?
Double stranded molecule in double helix; backbone consists of alternating sugar molecules (deoxyribose) and a phosphate group; the steps to the ladder-like structure are nitrogenous bases: Adenine-Thymine, Cytosine-Guanine
Characteristics of lipids
- fats and oils
- function: either energy storage or structural component
- two groups: simple and compound
Types of simple lipids
Saturated, unsaturated, and trans
-sat: Full of hydrogen, only single bonds btwn carbons, solid at room temp (BAD FOR YOU)
-uns: not full of hydrogen, double bonds btwn carbons, liquid at room temp
-trans: solid at room temp even though it is unsaturated; opposite configuration (a compound occurs on opposite sides of the chain of C)
Three cells shapes
- coccus, circular
- bacillus, rod
- spirillium, spiral
Water moves with its concentration gradient
Three types of tonicities
Isotonic - equal amounts of solutes in 2 liquids
Hypertonic - one fluid has less solute than the other
Hypotonic - one fluid has more solute than the other
What would happen to a cell in a hypotonic solution and why?
swell because the cell would have a larger solute concentration, and a smaller water concentration
What would happen to a cell in a hypertonic solution and why?
shrink bc the cell would have a smaller solute concentration, and a larger water concentration
What is the name of the model to describe the structure of the cell membrane?
Fluid Mosaic Model