Test 1 - Ch's 1,2,3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 1 - Ch's 1,2,3 Deck (81):
1

Define: prokaryotic

before nucleus, no membrane-bound organelles

2

Define: eukaryotic

has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

3

Define: bioremediation

using microbes to clean up pollution

4

Define: emerging disease

new diseases or ones that were once rare but are now becoming more common

5

Define: nomenclature

the science of naming; all living things are given a universal scientific name

6

Which of the three domains of life contain organisms with peptidoglycan in the cell walls?

Bacteria

7

Tell which domain has prokaryotic organisms, are mostly unicellular, have DNA or RNA, and have peptidoglycan in cell walls.

Domain Bacteria

8

Which domain has eukaryotes, is uni- or multicellular, and producers or consumers

Eukarya

9

Domain that is usually unicellular organisms, prokaryotic, DNA, lives in extreme environments, and has cell walls

Archae

10

Why are viruses not considered living things?

They cannot reproduce sexually nor asexually.

11

Why are prions not considered living things?

Cannot reproduce and made entirely of proteins, no DNA or RNA.

12

How would you format a binomial nomenclature?

Genus first, capitalized; second word specific epithet, lowercase; either typed in italics or underlined by hand

13

Define: dehydration synthesis

The creation of large molecules by removal of water

14

What characterizes the tertiary level of protein structure?

Globular and fibrous 3D shapes

15

Define: changing a protein's shape to make it nonfunctional

Denaturation

16

Which of the following is not digestible by animals?
starch, chitin, glycogen, protein

Chitin

17

Which one is NOT a macromolecule?
polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, nucleotides, carbohydrate, nucleic acids, and starch

nucleotides

18

Define: the breakdown of large molecules by the enzymatic addition of water

hydrolysis

19

Define: monomers

smaller units, that when brought together compose a macromolecule

20

What is the ratio of C to H to O in carbohydrates?

1:2:1 - C:H:O

21

What structure do plants store their excess carbohydrates?

Starch

22

What molecule is used to energy by animals (polysaccharide?)

Glycogen

23

Which one of these five molecules would be the least digested by humans?

oil, starch, protein, cellulose, sugar

24

Name the four macromolecule of life and their monomers

Carbohydrates - monosaccharides
Proteins - amino acids
Nucleic Acids - nucleotides
Lipids - fatty acids and glycerol

25

What is the name for the type of bond between amino acids?

Peptide bonds

26

Describe the secondary structure of proteins

both helical and sheetlike

27

How many levels of protein structure are there?

4

28

Describe the quaternary structure of protein structure and give an example

More than one amino acid chain is present in the protein; hemoglobin has four separate chains, all in their tertiary structures

29

What is the word used to describe the different ways the two strands of DNA interact?

Antiparallel

30

How are human ribosomes different from bacterial ribosomes?

Human ribosomes are bigger
Compare: 70S v 80S

31

What structures in bacterial cells contain extrachromosomal DNA and how does it help the cell survive

Plasmids; able to exchange with other cells to spread genetic material, which allow them to spread the genes to resist antibiotics

32

Define: glycocalyx; tell 2 functions

gel like layer around the bacterial cell; capsule is it is gelatinous; slime layer if it is diffuse and irregular;
helps bact avoid the immune syst and form biofilms (mass of bact coating a surface, ex: plaque on teeth)

33

Type of pili used for attachment to surfaces

fimbriae

34

Define: term used by bact to sense and respond to chemical signals

chemotaxis

35

Define: bact moving in response to light

photoaxis

36

Define: bact moving in response to O2 concentration

aerotaxis

37

Define: basal body

Part of the flagella that attaches to the cell membrane

38

Define: proton motive force

Separation of charge across a membrane

39

Give an example of when bact use proton motive force

pump waste molecules out of the cell - antiporter and effilux

40

Define: process used to make endospores

sporulation

41

Name a genus of bact that is capable of making endospores

Bacillus

42

What types of transport require transport proteins?

Active transport and facilitated diffusion

43

Which type of transport requires energy from the cell?

Active transport

44

Why is active transport the only type to require energy form the cell

Because it moves molecules against their concentration gradient

45

What characteristic do both Gram + & Gram - bact have in common?

Cell wall has peptidoglycan

46

What are characteristics of the cell walls of bact that are Gram +

cell wall is thick, contains teichoic and leipoteichoic acids

47

What are characteristics of the cell walls of bact that are Gram -

call wall is thin and has LPS, lipopolysaccharide bilayer

48

Who was the first person to see a microorganism?

Robert Hooke

49

What is Antony van Leeuwenhoek known for?

First to see bacteria, under a ground glass lens

50

What is spontaneous Generation?

Idea that microbes could spontaneously appear

51

Who were the two scientists that proved Spontaneous Generation was not true

Louis Pasteur and John Tyndall

52

What are the three nonliving agents that cause disease?

Viruses, prions, and viroids

53

Which of the three nonliving agents are not known to cause human disease, but plant?

Viroids

54

What does Anthrax do?

When endospores are inhaled, germinate in the lungs and cause pneumonia

55

Describe kingdom Plantae

- not microscopic
- multicellular
- producers thru photosynthesis

56

Describe kingdom Animalia

- mostly not microscopic, but does have microscopic worms
- multicellular
- consumers

57

Describe kingdom Protista

- considered microbes
- mostly unicellular
- some producers - "algae"
- some consumers - "protozoa"

58

Describe kingdom Fungi

- some microbes, but not all
- multicellular
- decomposers, consumers - feed off of dead and decaying matter

59

Describe how prions cause disease

When the abnormal protein find the normal version, it causes the normal version to change shape (rmmbr denaturation), making it abnormal as well
* This is NOT reproduction, this is conversion

60

What are the most abundant elements in living things?

oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen

61

Define: atomic #

proton #

62

Define: mass #/ atomic weight

Proton + neutrons

63

Don't forget the bonds bitch

ionic, nonpolar covalent, polar covalent, hydrogen

64

pH scale

1-14
7 neutral
Under 7 acidic
Over 7 basic

65

Match them:
Acidic
Basic
OH-
H+

Acids have more H+ ions
Bases have more OH- ions

66

What are buffers?

Molecules that resists changes in pH, keeping it constant, but not necessarily neutral

67

Define: carbohydrate molecules that have more than one monomer, and give another name

Oligosaccharides, but disaccharides is more common bc it means 2 monomers
ex: sucrose and lactose

68

Differentiate between starch and cellulose

Cellulose is very similar in structure to starch, buy is not used for energy storage, rather reinforces and gives structure to plants, found in their cell walls.

69

Function of Glycogen

Glycogen is an energy storage polysaccharide in animals because it is easily broken down by adding water, which is important to be able to convert to glucose and put back into the bloodstream to stabilize blood sugar

70

Characteristics and functions of chitin

Chitin is a polysaccharide that canNOT be broken down by hydrolysis. Found in the cell walls of fungi, are not digestible by humans, like cellulose. Also found in the exoskeletons of insects, crabs, lobsters, etc.

71

Polysaccharides can perform one of two functions. What are these two function?

Structure and energy storage.

72

What is the structure of DNA?

Double stranded molecule in double helix; backbone consists of alternating sugar molecules (deoxyribose) and a phosphate group; the steps to the ladder-like structure are nitrogenous bases: Adenine-Thymine, Cytosine-Guanine

73

Characteristics of lipids

- fats and oils
- function: either energy storage or structural component
- hydrophobic
- two groups: simple and compound

74

Types of simple lipids

Saturated, unsaturated, and trans
-sat: Full of hydrogen, only single bonds btwn carbons, solid at room temp (BAD FOR YOU)
-uns: not full of hydrogen, double bonds btwn carbons, liquid at room temp
-trans: solid at room temp even though it is unsaturated; opposite configuration (a compound occurs on opposite sides of the chain of C)

75

Three cells shapes

- coccus, circular
- bacillus, rod
- spirillium, spiral

76

Define: osmosis

Water moves with its concentration gradient

77

Three types of tonicities

Isotonic - equal amounts of solutes in 2 liquids
Hypertonic - one fluid has less solute than the other
Hypotonic - one fluid has more solute than the other

78

What would happen to a cell in a hypotonic solution and why?

swell because the cell would have a larger solute concentration, and a smaller water concentration

79

What would happen to a cell in a hypertonic solution and why?

shrink bc the cell would have a smaller solute concentration, and a larger water concentration

80

What is the name of the model to describe the structure of the cell membrane?

Fluid Mosaic Model

81

what should you also look at to study for this test?

learning objectives you stayed up all night to finish