Flashcards in Ch. 16 Deck (22):

1

## Interval measurement

### Not an exact 0, can get an average score on a BP, weight, height focuses on ordering with equals intervals

2

## Ratio measurement

### Can get an average, equal intervals and absolute zeros

3

## Nominal

### Not rankings or averages, classify variables into categories

4

## Ordinal

### Rankings or variables or events with unequal intervals

5

## Descriptive statistics

###
Describes and summarizes, measures of central tendency; mean, median, mode, and association between two variables

Want to see symmetric distribution

6

## Inferential

### Predict and generalize; analyze, test hypothesis, and answer research questions used to draw conclusions

7

## Null hypothesis

###
Saying that ther is no difference between two groups. It can be tested by statistical methods

Will be rejected when there are differences between variables or too large to be caused by chance

8

## Type 1:

###
The researcher rejects a null hypothesis when its actually true (more serious) (less than 5%) (usually happen when the sample size is too small)

Can control by setting the level of significance before the study begins

9

## Type 2

###
Researcher accepts a null hypothesis that is actually false

Can occur when sample size is too small

10

## Central tendency

### Single number describes the middle of the group, one single random number can change the central tendency

11

## Median

### Not sensitive to extremes in high and low scores (typical score)

12

## Mode

### Middle of scores

13

## Mean

###
Average of scores (most stable)

When data is positively skewed the mean will be to the right of the median

Negative skew means that it is towards the left of the median

14

## Standard deviations

###
1 = 68%

2 = 95%

15

## Positive

### If the line goes up together

16

## Negative

### Line goes down (r = 0.4)

17

## Pearsons correlation coefficient

### Used to express relationships when two variables being tested have only two levels, parametric test, more powerful

18

## Spearman row

### Not normally distributed, crazy tails, used to determine degree of association between two sets of ranks

19

## T-test

### Used to test the difference between means

20

## Small effect

###
R = 0.1

Difference between means = 0.2 standard deviation

21

## Medium effect

###
R = 0.3, d = 0.5

22