CH 17: Gene Expression Flashcards Preview

Final Exam CH 16+17 > CH 17: Gene Expression > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH 17: Gene Expression Deck (18)
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1

DNA

double stranded, its a polymer of 4 different nucleotide monomers. they are C, G, A, T

2

RNA (the messenger)

single stranded, its a polymer of 4 different nucleotide monomers. they are C, G, A, U

3

Protein

Polymer of 20 different amino acid monomers

4

transcription happens

in the nucleus (for eukaryotes)

5

translation happens

in the cytoplasm on a ribosome

6

Ribosomes are made up of rRNA. they make....

proteins

7

nucleotide

a molecule that has 3 sections

8

polymerase copies in which direction

3' to 5'

9

on the leading strand,

DNA replication moves along with the replication fork, requires on the initial primer

10

on the lagging strand,

polymerase has to go one chunk at a time, as new template is made available. the templates are called OKAZAKI Fragements,

11

DNA Polymerase I

swaps the primer nucleotides for DNA nucleotides on the lagging strand

12

ligase

makes sure all the nucleotides are connected

13

In transcription,

enzymes use of one the strands of DNA as a template to produce mRNA

14

how does DNA produce messenger RNA

RNA polymerase (with the help of proteins called transcription factors), binds to a specific sequence within the gene, which is called the promoter, and pries the two strands apart. One of the strands will serve as the template (antisense strand), and the other is the nontemplate (sense strand).

15

Does RNA polymerase need a primer?

No, it simply initiates mRNA synthesis at the start of the codon, and then moves downstream along the gene in a process called elongation, synthesizing the mRNA as it goes.

16

RNA polymerase reads in what order

3' to 5'

17

the mRNA is built in what direction

5' to 3'

18

during translation,

the mRNA acts as a code for a specific protein.