Flashcards in CH 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Deck (38)
a pentose sugar attached to a nitrogenous base and to a phosphate group.
what are the 4 different nitrogenous bases in DNA?
Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine.
Which two are single-ring pyrimidines?
Thymine and Cytosine
Which two are double-ring purines?
Adenine and Guanine
DNA is ___ and ___
antiparallel and complimentary
unwinds the two DNA strands at the origin of replication by temporarily breaking the hydrogen bonds. CREATES REPLICATION FORKS
Single stranded binding proteins
binds to the newly separated DNA strands that were broken down by helicase to prevent them from re-forming the hydrogen bonds between them.
relieves the overwinding in the DNA double strand caused by helicase's unwinding the two strands.
attaches a primer of RNA nucleotides that signal for DNA replication to begin at the location of the primer.
DNA Polymerase III (3)
adds nucleotides to create new DNA strands using each separated strand as a template.DNA Polymerase III corrects most errors as they occur
DNA Polymerase I (1)
replaces RNA nucleotide primers with DNA nucleotides.
functions in the lagging strand to join the Okazaki fragments into one continuous DNA strand.
DNA + histone =
DNA & proteins are organized as cylindrical fibers
chromosomes are made up of
DNA and protein
DNA is a polymer of
there are _ different types of nucleotides
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase showed that DNA was responsible for genetic heredity
___ is responsible for genetic heredity
what accounts for all the genetic diversity on earth?
the order of the four (A,T, C, G) nucleotides
what makes an organism what it is?
the combination and sequence of nucleotides in DNA provide the blueprint for making proteins that makes an organism what it is
the parent DNA strand unwinds and two new strands are created, using the base pairing rules. The result is two strands (sister chromatids) of DNA that each have one parent strand and one newly synthesized strand
Prokaryote DNA is circular, ___
circular, round, and only have one replication origin. Replication proceeds in both directions
Eukaryotic DNA (linear)
have many replication origins, replication proceeds in both directions
new nucleotides can only be added to the __' end of the new DNA strand that is being built
repairs DNA damage and synthesis errors. Example: when we get a sunburn, we hurt our DNA, nuclease goes in and pulls this error region in and DNA Polymerase III can fix it, and DNA Ligase seals the ends together.
can be passed down from one generation to the next. It is an error. Some can be harmful and some can be beneficial