CH 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Flashcards Preview

Final Exam CH 16+17 > CH 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance > Flashcards

Flashcards in CH 16: The Molecular Basis of Inheritance Deck (38)
Loading flashcards...
1

nucleotide

a pentose sugar attached to a nitrogenous base and to a phosphate group.

2

what are the 4 different nitrogenous bases in DNA?

Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine, and Guanine.

3

Which two are single-ring pyrimidines?

Thymine and Cytosine

4

Which two are double-ring purines?

Adenine and Guanine

5

DNA is ___ and ___

antiparallel and complimentary

6

Helicase

unwinds the two DNA strands at the origin of replication by temporarily breaking the hydrogen bonds. CREATES REPLICATION FORKS

7

Single stranded binding proteins

binds to the newly separated DNA strands that were broken down by helicase to prevent them from re-forming the hydrogen bonds between them.

8

Topoisomerase

relieves the overwinding in the DNA double strand caused by helicase's unwinding the two strands.

9

Primase

attaches a primer of RNA nucleotides that signal for DNA replication to begin at the location of the primer.

10

DNA Polymerase III (3)

adds nucleotides to create new DNA strands using each separated strand as a template.DNA Polymerase III corrects most errors as they occur

11

DNA Polymerase I (1)

replaces RNA nucleotide primers with DNA nucleotides.

12

DNA Ligase

functions in the lagging strand to join the Okazaki fragments into one continuous DNA strand.

13

DNA + histone =

nucleosome

14

chromatin

DNA & proteins are organized as cylindrical fibers

15

chromosomes are made up of

DNA and protein

16

DNA is a polymer of

nucleotides

17

there are _ different types of nucleotides

4

18

A =

T

19

G =

C

20

in 1952,

Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase showed that DNA was responsible for genetic heredity

21

___ is responsible for genetic heredity

DNA

22

what accounts for all the genetic diversity on earth?

the order of the four (A,T, C, G) nucleotides

23

what makes an organism what it is?

the combination and sequence of nucleotides in DNA provide the blueprint for making proteins that makes an organism what it is

24

DNA Replication

the parent DNA strand unwinds and two new strands are created, using the base pairing rules. The result is two strands (sister chromatids) of DNA that each have one parent strand and one newly synthesized strand

25

Prokaryote DNA is circular, ___

circular, round, and only have one replication origin. Replication proceeds in both directions

26

Eukaryotic DNA (linear)

have many replication origins, replication proceeds in both directions

27

new nucleotides can only be added to the __' end of the new DNA strand that is being built

3'

28

Nuclease

repairs DNA damage and synthesis errors. Example: when we get a sunburn, we hurt our DNA, nuclease goes in and pulls this error region in and DNA Polymerase III can fix it, and DNA Ligase seals the ends together.

29

Mutations

can be passed down from one generation to the next. It is an error. Some can be harmful and some can be beneficial

30

Telomeres

do NOT code for genes, they are short, repetitive nucleotide sequences.