Ch. 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 2 Deck (48):
1

Zygote

The single cell that is formed from the fusing of two gametes, sperm and ovum

2

DNA

The molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins

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Chromosome

One of the 46 molecules of DNA that almost every cell of the human body contains

4

Gene

A small section of a chromosome; basic unit for transmission of heredity

5

Gamete

A reproductive cell, sperm or ovum

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Allele

Any possible forms of a gene

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Genotype

An organism's entire genetic inheritance or genetic potential

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Phenotype

The observable characteristics of a person

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Genome

The full set of genes for a certain species

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XX

Female

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XY

Male

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Monozygotic twins

Twins who originate from one zygote that splits apart very early in development (identical twins)

13

Dizygotic twins

Twins who are formed when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time (fraternal twins)

14

Additive gene

A gene that contributes to the phenotype

15

Dominant-recessive pattern

The interaction of a pair of genes in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of one more than that of the other

16

Carrier

A person whose genotype includes a gene that is not expressed in the phenotype

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X-linked

A gene carried on the X chromosome

18

Germinal period

The first two weeks of development after conception, characterized by rapid cell division

19

Embryonic period

The stage of prenatal development from the end of the 2nd week through the 8th week after conception; formation of body structures and internal organs

20

Fetal period

The stage of prenatal development from nine weeks after conception until birth

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Stem cells

Cells from which any other specialized type of cell can form

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Implantation

10 days after conception, developing organism burrows into the tissue that lines the uterus where it will be nourished

23

Embryo

The name for a developing human organism from 2-8 weeks after conception

24

Sonogram

An image of a fetus produced by using high-frequency sound waves

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Fetus

The name for a developing human from week 9 til birth

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Age of viability

The age at which the fetus may survive outside the mother's uterus if specialized medical care is available

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Apgar scale

A quick assessment of a newborn's health

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C-section

Surgical birth

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Doula

A woman who helps with the birth process

30

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS)

A test that measures a newborn's responsiveness and records 46 behaviors, 20 reflexes

31

Reflex

An unlearned, involuntary action in response to a stimulus

32

Postpartum depression

Deep sadness and inadequacy felt after giving birth

33

Couvade

Symptoms of pregnancy and birth experience by fathers

34

Down syndrome

An extra chromosome at the 21st position (47 instead of 46)

35

Fragile X syndrome

A genetic condition that involves the X chromosome and that causes slow development

36

Teratogen

Any agent or condition that can impair prenatal development, resulting in birth defects or complications

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Behavioral teratogens

Agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning

38

Threshold effect

A Teratogen can be harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level

39

Fetal alcohol syndrome

You know what this is

40

Cerebral palsy

A disorder that results from damage to the brain's motor centers

41

Anoxia

A lack of oxygen

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False positives

A result in a lab test that suggests an abnormality that is not present

43

Low birthweight

<5.5lbs at birth

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Very low birthweight

<3lbs 5oz at birth

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Extremely low birthweight

<2lbs 3oz at birth

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Preterm birth

Birth at 3 or more weeks before the full 38 weeks of pregnancy

47

Small for gestational age

Body weight at birth significantly lower than expected

48

Heritability

A statistic that indicates what % of the variation in a trait within a population can be traced to genes