Ch 2 & 3 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy And Physiology For SLP > Ch 2 & 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 2 & 3 Deck (63):
1

Respiration

Exchange of gas between an organism and its environment

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Inspiration

Breathing in

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Expiration

Breathing out

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Alveoli

Air sacs where gas exchange happens after gas has been drawn into the system

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Diffusion

Migrating or mixing of one material through another

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Air pressure

Force exerted on the walls of a chamber by molecule of air

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Boyle's Law

Given a gas of constant temperature, if you increase the volume of the chamber in which the gas is contained, the pressure will decrease

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Positive pressure

Air pressure that exceeds atmospheric pressure; molecules are much closer together and pressure is increased

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Negative pressure

Air pressure is less than atmospheric pressure; molecules move farther apart so pressure decreases

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Foramina

Openings

11

Corpus

Body

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Facet

Small face

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Tubercle

A small rounded prominence on bone

14

Pedicle

Foot

15

Ambulation

Walking

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Intervertebral disks

Separates the individual vertebrae of the vertebral column

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Chondral

Cartilaginous

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Xiphoid or ensiform process

Tip of the sternum; sword or swordlike

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Congenital

Present at birth

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Bolus

Ball or lump of masticated food ready to swallow

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Mediastinal

Referring to the middle space; in respiration it refers to the organs separating the lungs

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Dead air

Air that does not descend below the space that cannot undergo gas exchange with the blood

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Gastroesophageal reflux

Reintroduction of gastrointestinal contents into the esophagus and respiratory passageway

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Pulmonary

Pertaining to the lungs

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Goblet cells

Within the mucosal lining and submucosal glands that secrete lubricant into the respiratory tract to trap pollutants as they enter the trachea and larynx

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Cilia

Hairlike processes that line the respiratory passageway from the nose to the beginning of the bronchi and beat the pollutants upward and posteriorly

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Mucus

Dense fluid product of mucous membrane tissue

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Aspiration

Entry of liquid or solid materials into the lungs

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Vertical dimension (of thoracic expansion)

The superior-inferior dimension of thorax movement generated by contraction of the diaphragm

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Transverse dimension (of thoracic expansion)

Antero-posterior and lateral dimensional expansion of the thorax generated by contraction of the accessory muscles of inspiration

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Venules

Tiny veins

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Hiatus

Opening

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Diaphragmatic contraction

Expands the lungs, drawing air into them through the bronchial passageway

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Quiet inspiration

Inspiration that involves minimal muscular activity, involves primarily that of the diaphragm

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Forced inspiration

Inspiration that involves both diaphragm and accessory muscles of inspiration

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Cervical plexus

Group of phrenic nerves that anastomoses from the spinal nerves C1-C4

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Parasternal

Near the sternum

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Forced expiration

Reverses the process by pulling the thorax down and in by forcing the diaphragm higher into the thorax

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Active expiration

Expiration arising from muscular activity

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Passive expiration

Expiration arising from passive forces of muscular tissue elasticity

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Spirometer

Decide used to measure respiratory volume

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Manometer

Device used to measure air pressure differences

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Ventilation

Air inhaled per unit time

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Perfusion

Migration of fluid through a barrier

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Quiet tidal volume

Tidal volume at rest, approximately 525cc for male and female adults combined

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Capacities

Combinations of respiratory volumes that express physiological limits

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Inspiration reserve volume

Volume of air that can be inhaled after a tidal inspiration

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Expiratory reserve volume

Volume of air that can be expired after a tidal expiration

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Residual volume

Volume of air remaining after a maximum exhalation

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Vital capacity

Total volume of air that can be inspired after a maximal expiration

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Functional residual capacity

Volume of air remaining in the body after a passive exhalation

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Total lung capacity

Sum of tidal volume, inspiration reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, and residual volume

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Inspiratory capacity

Maximum inspiratory volume possible after tidal expiration

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Intraoral (mouth) pressure

Pressure that could be measured within the mouth

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Alveolar (pulmonic) pressure

Pressure that is present within the individual alveolus

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Pleural (intrapleural) pressure

Pressure in the space between the parietal and visceral pleurae

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Pneumothorax

Aggregation of air in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, with subsequent loss of the negative intrapleural pressure

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Atmospheric pressure

Pressure on the earth, acts as a constant zero with which to compare respiratory pressures

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Recoil forces

Drive the respiratory system back to equilibrium after inspiration or expiration

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Checking action

Use of muscles of inspiration to impede the outward flow of air during respiration for speech

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Minute volume

Volume of air exchanged by an organism in one minute

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Dead air space

Air within conducting passageways that cannot be involved in gas exchange

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Respiratory capacity

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