Ch. 22 + 23 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 22 + 23 Deck (33)
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1
Q

How did the government contribute to the building of the national rail work?

A

They provided free grants of federal land to the railroad companies

2
Q

Which two railroads created the first continental line in 1869?

A

The Union Pacific and the Central Pacific

3
Q

Name the effects of transcontinental railroad lines

A

Immigration increased, cities grew larger, mining and agricultural industries had an easier time transporting goods, lands were depleted more quickly

4
Q

The Interstate Commerce Act

A

required railroads to publish their rates openly, prohibited rebates and pools, outlawed charging more for a short haul, set up the Interstate Commerce Commision

5
Q

What did the supreme court ruling St.Louis and Pacific Railroad Company V. Illinois establish?

A

prohibited states from regulating interstate commerce, which gave the federal government the sole power to regulate the Railroad industry

6
Q

Vertical Integration

A

Perfected by Andrew Carnegie, established monopolistic control of every phase of business

7
Q

Interlocking doctorates

A

placing officers of your own company onto various boards of directors of other companies, used by banker JP Morgan to consolidate competitors

8
Q

How did large trusts like Standard Oil and those of Swift and Armour justify the economic denomination of their industries?

A

Large- scale methods of production and distribution could provide superior products at low prices

9
Q

What was the basic belief of Social Darwinists

A

the idea that people gained wealth through “survival of the fittest” and that the wealthy did not owe anything to the poor

10
Q

What did the Sherman Anti-Trust Act state

A

the first congressional attempt to regulate business for the public good, forbade combinations in restraint of trade, contained legal loopholes, used to curb labor unions, was not very effective

11
Q

Who did southern textile mills generally employ?

A

poor whites recently of the farms

12
Q

Who did southern textile mills generally employ?

A

poor whites recently of the farms, blacks were excluded

13
Q

Which group was most dramatically altered by the new industrial age?

A

Women who came to work with typewriters and telephone switchboards, earned less than men, had smaller families and delayed marriages

14
Q

The National Labor Union won what for it’s workers?

A

An 8-hour work day

15
Q

What did the American Federation of Labor advocate for?

A

they concentrated on improving wages and hours of only skilled labors and avoided general social reform

16
Q

Andrew Carnegie

A

made no apology for the accumulation of wealth, believed in “survival of the fittest” but also that he should distribute his wealth, but not to just anyone

17
Q

Cotton Textiles

A

the industry gradually moved from the North to the South, where it came to dominate communities in the chronically depressed Piedmont region of Southern Appalachia

18
Q

Kerosene

A

Long before automobiles, this was the major product of the infant oil industry

19
Q

What was the most important factor promoting the construction of railroads after the Civil War?

A

government subsidies in the form of loans and land grants

20
Q

What was the primary base of the democratic party?

A

wealthy easterners, poor midwesterners, and debt-burdened agrarians

21
Q

What brought a halt to boss tweed’s widespread corruption?

A

The Journalistic exposes of the New York Times and Cartoonist Thomas Nast

22
Q

Why was the Democrat’s nomination of Horace Greeley as their presidential candidate in 1872 politically disastrous?

A

Greely had spent many years denouncing Democrats as morally deficient slave traders and traitors

23
Q

The depression that began with the panic of 1873 created the first major clamor for?

A

inflationary policies to be promoted by issuing greenbacks and other forms of soft money (particularly by debtors)

24
Q

What was the main reason for extremely high voter turnout and partisan fervor between the Democrats and the Republicans of the Gilded Age?

A

Sharp ethnic and cultural differences in the membership of the two parties

25
Q

The Compromise of 1877 resulted in

A

the return to Democratic-minded electoral politics in the South, the official end to reconstruction, the resolution of the 1876 election

26
Q

Which was a result of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?

A

Chinese immigration was prohibited in the United States until 1943.

27
Q

The assassination of President James Garfield by a disappointed office seeker did what?

A

It shocked politicians into reforming the spoils system. Through the Pendleton Act of 1883, Congress established the Civil Service Commission, which granted federal government jobs on the basis of examinations instead of political patronage.

28
Q

Grover Cleveland always was insistent on

A

Telling the Truth

29
Q

What two primary factors influenced the mass immigration of the Chinese?

A

their empire was disintegrating, they came to america for the promise of working in gold mines, most were single men

30
Q

Kearneyites

A

Led by Irish-born Denis Kearney, composed of recently arrived European immigrants, they faced competition with Chinese Immigrants and were a hateful group against the Chinese

31
Q

What characterized the Immediate post Civil-War era and Grant’s administration

A

Corruption

32
Q

Jay Gould

A

Millionaire who conspired to corner the gold market in 1869 along with his partner Jim Fisk, bid the price of gold skyward and needed the Treasury to refrain from actually selling any gold in order for their plan to work

33
Q

Mugwumps

A

Reform- minded republicans who thought they had to align themselves with Democrats because the Republican party nominated James Blaine