Ch 22 Flashcards Preview

Nutrition > Ch 22 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch 22 Deck (23):
1

Type 1

Insulin dependent

Insulin prevent: ketoacidiosis, coma, death

5-10%

Childhood and adolescence

Increased urination, weight loss, thirst

Less acute onset:
6-12 month "honey moon period"

2

Type 2

Non-insulin dependent

Obese

90-95%

Symptoms: poor wound healing, blurred vision, gum and bladder infections

Metabolic syndrome

After 40 yrs

3

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)

Carbohydrate intolerance

2-5% pregnancies

30-40% women likely to develop T2DM

180 k/cal day 2nd trimester

600uq folic acid : prevent neural tube defects

1700-1800 kcal/day prevent ketosis

4

Prediabetes

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

Impaired fasting glucose (IFG)

Metabolic syndrome: obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension

5

Type 1: two types

Immune mediated: cellular mediated autoimmune destruction of beta cells of pancreas

Idiopathic: no known

6

T1DM

Increase thirst (polydipsia)

Increase urination (polyuria)

Increased hunger (polyphagia)

Weight loss

Fatigue or weakness

7

T2DM

Asymptomatic

Poor wound healing

Blurred vision

Skin irritation or infection

Gum and bladder infections

8

Normal blood glucose

70-120 mg/dL

Metabolism

Metabolic functions

9

Sources of blood glucose

Carbohydrates

Protein

Fat

Glycogen in liver

10

Insulin

Facilitates transport of glucose through cell membranes

Enhanced conversion of glucose to glycogen

Stimulates conversion of glucose to fat

Inhibits fat and protein breakdown

Promotes amino acid uptake

Influences glucose oxidation

11

Glucagon

Balancing antagonist of insulin

Breaks liver glycogen

Increase blood glucose levels to protect brain and tissues

Maintain normal blood glucose during sleep

12

Somatostatin

Inhibits interactions between glucagon and insulin

13

Diabetes metabolic changes

Blood glucose not oxidized through glycolytic pathway -builds up in blood

Fat breakdown increase = excess ketones

Tissue protein breakdown for energy

14

Diabetes complications

Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia

Retinopathy, nerve damage, kidney damage, coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease

15

GDM goals

Fasting: less than 105 mg/dL

1 hour postprandial: less than 155 mg/ dL

2 hour postprandial: less than 130 mg/dL

16

Diabetes insipidus

Pituitary gland and insufficient of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone)

Non sweet urine, increase thirst, large appetite

Specific injury to pituitary gland

17

Glycogenolysis

Production of blood glucose from liver

18

Glycogenesis

Synthesis of glycogen from blood glucose

19

Lipogenesis

Synthesis of fat from blood glucose

20

Glycolysis

Cell oxidation of glucose for energy

21

Retinopathy

Noninflammatory disease in retina

Microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, waxy yellow exudate, "cotton wool" patches and macular edema

Can cause damage to fibrous tissue, retina detachment, blind

22

Neuropathy

PNS, diabetes, chronic sensory condition in legs and numbness, loss of tendon reflexes, pain, weakness

23

Nephropathy

Disease of kidneys

Diabetes: renal damage and changes to nephrons

Lead to glomerulosclerosis and chronic renal failure