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Flashcards in Ch 22 Study guide Deck (30):

Who proposed the heliocentric, or sun-centered, theory?



What effects did the scientific revolution have on society?

It challenged the ideas of ancient thinkers and the church and made people question accepted beliefs


Describe the neoclassical style. Provide an example.

A simple, elegant style based off ideas form classic Greece or Rome. An example is Beethoven's music


How did the Declaration of Independence embody Enlightenment ideals?

It was firmly based on the ideas of John Locke, argued for natural rights, and the right to overthrow a tyrannical ruler


How did the taxation problem in America differ before and after independence?

Before, they were being forcefully taxed without representation and after, the new government could only request funds, not impose law, which led to them putting tariffs between states


What did the censors of the Catholic Church ban?

Banned Galileo's ideas of a heliocentric solar system

The enlightenment ideas spread and the government and church authorities banned books and imprisoned enlightenment thinkers to stop the ideas from spreading.



What would be an example of the influence of Enlightenment ideas in the 1700s?

Neoclassical style, classical music, and novels and new literature


How does the main character in Richardson’s Pamela reflect Enlightenment ideas?

It tells the story of a young servant girl who refuses the advances of her master, just like people questioning ancient beliefs and leaders, as well as Locke's idea of the right to overthrow a tyrannical ruler


Which philosophe contradicted the ideas in the U.S. Constitution?

Hobbes believed people should hand over their rights to a ruler with total power in exchange for law and order


How did Zacharias Janssen make Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discoveries possible?

The scientific method and scientific revolution demanded new tools to observe the natural world and make precise observations

Jansen invented microscope


What did Andreas Vesalius and Voltaire both do?

They both challenged existing laws, Vesalius proved human anatomy was different from pigs and Voltaire fought for freedoms


What did American colonists protest as taxation without representation?

The colonists had no representatives in parliament so they couldn't argue against the stamp tax or any other tax. They believed this violated their natural rights


What beliefs did the Enlightenment promote?

It promoted reason, thought, and the power of the individual
It promoted reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
truth could be discovered through reason, everything natural is good, urged people to seek happiness on earth, society could always improve, and everyone should have liberties


Describe the law of universal gravitation?

every object in the universe attracts every other object


How were Thomas Hobbes and Catherine the Great similar?

After a serf rebellion, Catherine the Great resulted to giving all the power to the monarch and nobles, leaving no freedom for the serfs, much like Hobbes' idea of a social contract. She also liked ideas of other philosophes.


What did Frederick II support?

He wanted to reform Prussia by granting religious freedoms, reducing censorship, improving education, reforming the justice system, and abolishing torture. His main goal was to strengthen his country


How did the baroque style and neoclassical style differ?

Baroque was very gaudy and grand, e.g. Versailles, while neoclassical was simple and based off Greece and Rome


How did Montesquieu influence the U.S Constitution?

Montesquieu' ideas about separation of powers was implemented into our government in the constitution


What events occurred after the American Revolution?

America becomes a republic under the Articles of Confederation, the French were inspired by the revolution and DOI to start the French Revolution, and then America wrote a functioning constitution


What is the correct sequence of steps used in the scientific process?

It begins with a problem or question from observation, then a hypothesis is formed, then the hypothesis is tested, then the data is analyzed and a conclusion is made to either prove or disprove the hypothesis


Describe the neoclassical style of art

Neoclassical is a simple, elegant style, based off of classic Greece and Rome and heavily influenced by the Enlightenment


Who was Henry Fielding?

Henry Fielding was an English Novel writer, famous for his book 'Tom Jones' which told the story of an orphan who traveled all over England to win the hand of his lady


Who influenced the Bill of Rights?

The Bill of rights included amendments such as freedom of speech and religion, many of which were based off of Voltaire, Rousseau, and Locke


Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?

Thomas Jefferson


How did the philosophers influence Catherine the Great?

She reformed Russia's laws based on Montesquieu and Beccaria, she also recommended religious toleration and abolishing torture and capital punishment. Was the most admired by the philosophes


Describe baroque art and the time period it dominated.

Baroque was very grand, ornate, gaudy style, such as Versailles, and dominated the 1600's and early 1700's


What document/book explains the idea of direct democracy?

In Rousseau's book 'The Social Contract'


What did the philosophes, in general, all believe in?

They all believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life in order to personally judge what was right and wrong


What did Isaac Newton explain?

Newton explained the law of universal gravitation, that every object attracts every other object


What was Francis Bacon responsible for developing?

Bacon developed empiricism, where everything could be proved by experiments and experience to draw conclusions