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Flashcards in Midterm review Deck (79):
1

What was the Renaissance a rebirth of?

Rebirth of art and learning

2

The study of classical texts caused humanists to focus on what?

Human potential and achievement

3

For what is the Medici family famous?

Being a patron of the arts, collecting art

4

What were Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More considered?

Christian humanists

5

What was the first full-sized book Gutenberg printed?

The Gutenberg bible

6

In what way did Leonardo da Vinci represent the ideal known as the Renaissance Man?

He was a painter, sculptor, inventor, scientist, and studied subjects

7

Describe the practice of selling indulgences used by Catholic clergy during the Renaissance

Indulgences were a pardon that released sinners from performing penalties

8

Who declared himself the head of the English Church?

King Henry VIII

9

What was one of John Calvin’s major teachings?

predestination and theocracy

10

Who was the important Catholic Reformer who founded the Jesuit order?

Ignatius of Loyola

11

What kind of person represented the ideal of the Renaissance man.?

Strove to master every area of study

12

How did Italy’s location near Constantinople help it become the birthplace of the Renaissance?

Christian scholars fled to Rome and brought Greek manuscripts when Constantinople was conquered

13

What was an important effect of the invention of the printing press?

Writers used vernacular, rise of literacy, and a desire for learning

14

Why was block printing more useful in Europe than in China?

Europe had a smaller number of letters

15

Identify 2 reasons for the Reformation?

Leaders challenged the pope's authority, merchants resented taxes to the Church

16

Identify 2 of Luther’s main beliefs?

All people of faith were equal, All church teachings were based on the bible

17

What was the main reason for Henry VIII’s split with the Roman Catholic Church?

He needed a male heir

18

What was agreed upon at the Council of Trent?

The church's interpretation of the bible was final

19

The Peace of Augsburg ended a war between supporters of which two groups?

The Protestants and Catholics

20

Which idea of Luther’s most influenced John Calvin?

Humans cannot earn salvation through deeds or indulgences

21

Which European country was the leader in developing and applying 15th century
sailing innovations?

Portugal

22

Who were the first Europeans to arrive on Japanese soil

Portuguese sailors

23

Why was the caravel an important development in navigation?

better maneuverability, large cargo, and could explore close to shore

24

Korea was a vassal state of which country during the 1700s?

China

25

During the 1500s, what was China’s official trade policy

Isolationism, only the government could trade between countries

26

Why did Lord Macartney give a letter from King George III to Qian-long?

Great Britain wanted to increase trade with China

27

Who captained the first European ship to sail around the tip of Africa, now known
as the Cape of Good Hope?

Bartolomue Dias

28

What did Hongwu do first to help China become a dominant power?

Driving the Mongols out of China

29

What type of policy did Japan institute to control foreign ideas?

The Closed Country Policy

30

What type of poetry presents images rather than expresses an idea?

Haikus

31

What were European’s main motives for making voyages of exploration?

They wanted new sources of wealth, wanted goods from Asia, and wanted to spread Christianity

32

Why was Zheng He important?

He led all 7 voyages of exploration and gained China tribute countries

33

Why was the introduction of European firearms in Japan successful?

The Daimyo could defeat the samurai and castles were built to defend against cannons starting the build of cities

34

What were China’s main reasons for rejecting British offers of trade?

Lord Macartney refused to kowtow and China did not need British goods

35

How did Prince Henry of Portugal influence exploration?

He organized voyages of exploration and set up navigational schools which trained sailors

36

Describe the attitude reflected by China’s Forbidden City and the way it was used?

The city's immensity and fame showed off their power and might. This intimidated people

37

What major barrier hindered an effective centralized government in Japan?

The Daimyo still governed at a local level

38

Why was Tokugawa Ieyasu upset by the success of Christian missionaries?

They scorned Japanese beliefs and involved themselves in politics

39

What was the purpose of the Treaty of Tordesillas signed by Portugal and Spain?

To stop their dispute over whose land was whose

40

What two main reasons kept China from becoming highly industrialized?

The idea of commerce offended Confucian beliefs and taxes were high on manufacturing products

41

What was the main economic activity in New France?

The fur trade

42

Who conquered the Aztec empire?

Hernando Cortez

43

Why did Europeans see Africans as a better a source of labor than Native Americans?

African had some immunity to diseases, Africans had experience in farming, they didn't know their way around the land, and their skin made it easier to spot.

44

What was the purpose of most of the joint-stock companies of the 1500s and 1600s?

American Colonization

45

Where in the Americas did Christopher Columbus land first?

In the Caribbean

46

What did the encomienda system provide for New Spain?

provided a source of labor

47

What prompted a wave of new businesses and trade practices in Europe in the
16th and 17th centuries?

New wealth from the Americas and an increase in overseas trade

48

Which European country was the first to import enslaved Africans to the Americas?

Spain

49

As part of the Columbian Exchange, what was carried west across the Atlantic?

food, plants, animals, and disease

50

What area was originally founded as a settlement by the Dutch?

Manhattan Island and the Hudson waterways

51

What helped to increase the slave trade in Africa during the seventh century?

The spread of Islam

52

What aided the Spanish in conquering the Aztecs?

superior weaponry, European diseases, and the help of locals

53

On what assumption was the encomienda system based?

That anyone on the land was property and was to be respected

54

Why did the English want to take control of New Netherland?

They wanted to join their northern and southern colonies

55

What was one result of the loss of native lives to disease?

A severe shortage of labor which caused Africans to be used instead

56

How did slavery in African and Muslim societies differ from slavery in the Americas?

In African societies slaves had legal rights, could hold positions of power, and could legally escape their bondage

57

What was one effect in Europe of the financial success of American colonies?

A growth in overseas trade prompted a rise of new businesses and trade practices

58

How did Bartolemé de Las Casas affect race relations in the Americas?

Bartoleme said Africans were better slaves than natives and everyone started using Africans

59

According to the policy of mercantilism, how could a nation increase its wealth?

export more than it imports

60

How was Africa affected by the Atlantic slave trade?

It depleted the population by millions and modernized Africa with the European trading goods

61

What concept was the belief in divine right used to support?

absolute monarchy

62

Who was brought to England’s thrown following the Glorious Revolution?

William and Mary

63

Who inherited the Austrian throne only after Charles VI had the other European
powers sign an agreement declaring they would recognize the heir?

Maria Theresa

64

During the reign of Ivan the Terrible, which group suffered the greatest loss of power?

The boyars

65

What were some of Philip II.s accomplishments as king of Spain?

He seized the Portuguese kingdom, brought in incredible wealth from the America, and defended Catholicism

66

What was the main cause of the eight civil wars that were fought in France
between 1562 and 1598?

conflict between Catholics and Huguenots

67

What was the main cause of the eight civil wars that were fought in France
between 1562 and 1598?

conflict between Catholics and Huguenots

68

What was the main cause of the eight civil wars that were fought in France
between 1562 and 1598?

conflict between Catholics and Huguenots

69

What king became France’s most powerful ruler and boasted “I am the state?”

Louis XIV

70

Why did Peter the Great build the city of St. Petersburg?

It provided a connection to Europe and allowed trade to occur between them

71

European monarchs became absolute rulers in response to _____________?

Widespread unrest caused by conflicts caused rulers to impose order and increase power

72

After the northern Dutch gained their freedom from Spain, what type of government did the United Provinces of the Netherlands establish?

A Republic

73

What political purpose did the splendid palace at Versailles serve?

It made the nobility totally dependent on Louis and gave more power to the intendants

74

What did the Restoration restore to power in England?

the Monarchy

75

Which war resulted in the beginning of the modern state system in Europe?

30 Years' War

76

What did Frederick the Great believe a ruler should be?

A ruler should be like a father to his people

77

What was Peter the Great the first Russian ruler to make an effort to do?

Westernize Russia

78

Identify the chronological order of the following events in English history: the Glorious Revolution, the Restoration, and the English Civil War

(1) English Civil War, (2) the Restoration, and (3) the Glorious Revolution

79

How did the economy of central Europe differ from that of Western Europe?

In Western Europe, serfs gained freedom and developed cities, creating a middle class and greatly boosting the western countries' economies, but in Central serfs were not free and trade could not happen between them