Ch. 25 Key Concepts Flashcards Preview

SBL Exam 1 > Ch. 25 Key Concepts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 25 Key Concepts Deck (11)
Loading flashcards...
1

most melanocytic nevi have activating mutations in which genes?

BRAF, or less often NRAS
- the vast majority never undergo malignant transformation

2

most of these are best regarded as markers of melanoma risk rather than premalignant lesions
- they are characterized by architectural and cytologic atypia and are associated with germline mutation in genes encoding cell cycle regulators (p16/INK4a, CDK4) and telomerase

dysplastic nevi

3

highly aggressive malignancy linked to sun exposure
- risk of spread is predicted by a number of tumor characteristics, particularly the vertical thickness of excised tumors

melanoma
- often incites a host immune response and sometimes shows dramatic responses to antibody therapies that enhance T-cell immunity

4

what mutations are associated with melanoma?

- cell cycle regulators: p16/INK4a, CDK4
- pro-growth signaling factors: KIT, RAS, BRAF
- telomerase

5

the incidence of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma is strongly correlated with what?

increasing lifetime sun exposure

6

this type of carcinoma can progress from actinic keratoses but also arises from chemical exposure at thermal burn sites
- or in association with HPV infection in the setting of immunosuppression

cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

7

this carcinoma has potential for metastasis but is much less aggressive than squamous cell carcinoma at mucosal sites

cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

8

the most common malignancy worldwide
- is a locally aggressive tumor associated with mutations that activate Hedgehog signaling
- metastasis is very rare

basal cell carcinoma

9

classified based on the level of epidermal separation
- often caused by autoantibodies specific for epithelial or basement membrane proteins that lead to unmooring of keratinocytes

blistering disorders

10

associated with IgG autoantibodies to various intercellular desmogleins
- results in bullae that are either subcorneal or suprabasilar

pemphigus
- subcorneal = pemphigus foliaceus
- suprabasilar = pemphigus vulgaris

11

associated with IgA autoantibodies to fibrils that bind the epidermal basement membrane to the dermis
- also produce subepidermal blisters

dermatitis herpetiformis