Ch. 27 Flashcards Preview

Foundations Exam 2 > Ch. 27 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 27 Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

What structures are part ofthe cardiovascular system?

-Heart
-Blood vessels

2

What is the function of the heart?

-Impulse conduction
-Blood flow through the heart
-Cardiac output

3

What is the function of blood vessels?

-Distribution of blood flow
-Arteries
-Capillaries
-Veins
-Tissue perfusion

4

What is the function of blood?

Carries essential nutrients to the cells.

5

When can blood function effectively?

When its composition is normal and its volume sufficient to fill cardiovascular system.

6

Cardiac Output refers to what?

The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat/minute.

7

Cardiac output is a function of what two factors?

-HR
-Stroke Volume (SV)

8

What is HR primarily determined by?

SA node

9

What does stroke volume depend on?

-Accommodation of incoming blood volume by the heart
-Contractility of heart muscle
-Resistance to blood flow in the circulatory system

10

What are cardiac functions of newborns and infants?

-130-160 bpm
-irregular
-rate <100 bpm needs immediate evaluation
-infancy: HR begins between 80-150 ppm
-newborn bp is 45 mmHg and increases to 80-90 mmHg and is rarely assessed

11

What are cardiac functions of toddlers and preschoolers?

-HR 70-110 bpm by end of toddlerhood
-Annual bp measurement should begin at age 3

12

What are cardiac functions of children and adolescents?

-By 19 y/o HR and BP stabilize to adult values
of 60-80 bpm and 120/80 mmHg

13

What are cardiac functions of adults and older adults?

-Age and disease induced cardiovascular changes may lead to decrease in activity tolerance and endurance
-Age and lifestyle my contribute to calcification, fatty degeneration, diminished elasticity of blood vessels resulting in higher bp and cardiac output

14

What factors affect cardiovascular function?

-Cigarette smoking
-High BP
-Nutrition
-Sedentary lifestyle
-Diabetes
-Obesity
-Medical and family history
-Medications and drug use
-Stress
-Personality types
-Community factors

15

What are manifestations of altered cardiovascular function?

-Changes in vital signs
-Changes in skin
-Decreased cardiac output
-Altered blood flow
-Decreased tissue perfusion

16

What effects of decreased tissue perfusion is there on normal activities?

-Fatigue
-Pain
-Organ dysfunciton
-Limited ROM due to ischemia or edema
-Skin breakdown
-Increased risk of thrombus or embolus
-Cognitive dysfunction

17

What effects of blood pressure alteration is there on normal activities?

Orthostatic Hypotension

18

What effects of vessel occlusion is there on normal activities?

-Skin changes
-Pain

19

What effects of decreased cardiac output is there on normal activities?

-SOB
-Diminished ability to perform ADLs

20

What assessment of normal pattern is there in relation to cardiovascular function?

Activity tolerance

21

What assessments of risk identification is there in relation to cardiovascular function?

-Past cardiovascular conditions
-Non-modifiable risk factors
-Modifiable risk factors
-Current medications

22

What assessments of Dysfunction identification is there in relation to cardiovascular function?

-Chest pain
-Stroke screening

23

What types of physical assessments would you perform for cardiovascular function?

-Palpation
-Auscultation

24

What things are you checking when using palpation for assessment of cardiovascular function?

-Peripheral pulses
-Capillary refill time
-Edema grading

25

What things are you checking when using auscultation for assessment of cardiovascular function?

-Blood pressure
-Apical pulse
-Heart sounds

26

What are diagnostic tests and procedures can be done to check cardiovascular function? *Laboratory studies can also be done*

-Radiography
-Electrocardiography
-Exercise testing
-Echocardiography
-Blood flow studies
-Cardiac catheterization
-Angiography
-Electrophysiology

27

What are possible nursing diagnoses for cardiovascular function?

-Decreased cardiac output
-Ineffective tissue perfusion
-Activity intolerance

28

What general ideas should be included in the formulation of patient goals and outcomes in relation to cardiovascular function?

-Knowledge concerning cardiovascular dysfunction, prevention, or care
-Maintain adequate cardiac output
-Adequate tissue perfusion
-Coping effectively with changes in life-style and self-concept

29

What things should be included in implementation (health promotion) of cardiovascular function?

-Modifying risk factors
-Preventing venous stasis

30

What are nursing interventions for altered cardiovascular functioning?

-Patient teaching
-Medications
-Edema reduction
-Positioning
-Pain management
-Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
-Post-cardiovascular event interventions