Flashcards in Ch. 27 Deck (30)
What structures are part ofthe cardiovascular system?
What is the function of the heart?
-Blood flow through the heart
What is the function of blood vessels?
-Distribution of blood flow
What is the function of blood?
Carries essential nutrients to the cells.
When can blood function effectively?
When its composition is normal and its volume sufficient to fill cardiovascular system.
Cardiac Output refers to what?
The amount of blood pumped by the heart with each beat/minute.
Cardiac output is a function of what two factors?
-Stroke Volume (SV)
What is HR primarily determined by?
What does stroke volume depend on?
-Accommodation of incoming blood volume by the heart
-Contractility of heart muscle
-Resistance to blood flow in the circulatory system
What are cardiac functions of newborns and infants?
-rate <100 bpm needs immediate evaluation
-infancy: HR begins between 80-150 ppm
-newborn bp is 45 mmHg and increases to 80-90 mmHg and is rarely assessed
What are cardiac functions of toddlers and preschoolers?
-HR 70-110 bpm by end of toddlerhood
-Annual bp measurement should begin at age 3
What are cardiac functions of children and adolescents?
-By 19 y/o HR and BP stabilize to adult values
of 60-80 bpm and 120/80 mmHg
What are cardiac functions of adults and older adults?
-Age and disease induced cardiovascular changes may lead to decrease in activity tolerance and endurance
-Age and lifestyle my contribute to calcification, fatty degeneration, diminished elasticity of blood vessels resulting in higher bp and cardiac output
What factors affect cardiovascular function?
-Medical and family history
-Medications and drug use
What are manifestations of altered cardiovascular function?
-Changes in vital signs
-Changes in skin
-Decreased cardiac output
-Altered blood flow
-Decreased tissue perfusion
What effects of decreased tissue perfusion is there on normal activities?
-Limited ROM due to ischemia or edema
-Increased risk of thrombus or embolus
What effects of blood pressure alteration is there on normal activities?
What effects of vessel occlusion is there on normal activities?
What effects of decreased cardiac output is there on normal activities?
-Diminished ability to perform ADLs
What assessment of normal pattern is there in relation to cardiovascular function?
What assessments of risk identification is there in relation to cardiovascular function?
-Past cardiovascular conditions
-Non-modifiable risk factors
-Modifiable risk factors
What assessments of Dysfunction identification is there in relation to cardiovascular function?
What types of physical assessments would you perform for cardiovascular function?
What things are you checking when using palpation for assessment of cardiovascular function?
-Capillary refill time
What things are you checking when using auscultation for assessment of cardiovascular function?
What are diagnostic tests and procedures can be done to check cardiovascular function? *Laboratory studies can also be done*
-Blood flow studies
What are possible nursing diagnoses for cardiovascular function?
-Decreased cardiac output
-Ineffective tissue perfusion
What general ideas should be included in the formulation of patient goals and outcomes in relation to cardiovascular function?
-Knowledge concerning cardiovascular dysfunction, prevention, or care
-Maintain adequate cardiac output
-Adequate tissue perfusion
-Coping effectively with changes in life-style and self-concept
What things should be included in implementation (health promotion) of cardiovascular function?
-Modifying risk factors
-Preventing venous stasis