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Flashcards in Ch. 26 Deck (26)
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1

What is Ventilation?

Physical process of moving air into and out of the lungs for gas exchange.

2

What is Gas Diffusion?

Process in which molecules move from an area of greater concentration or pressure to an area of lower concentration of pressure.

3

What is Gas Transport?

Transport of oxygen in two forms by blood into tissues.

4

What is Control of Ventilation?

Ventilation is regulated through neural pathways.

5

What are normal respiratory functions?

-Ventilation
-Gas Diffusion
-Gas Transport
-Control of Ventilation
-Respiratory System Defenses
-Normal Breathing Pattern

6

What is Respiratory System Defenses?

Structures and physiological processes of respiratory tract.
-Warm
-Humidify
-Filter inspired air
-Trap and destroy bacteria
-Keep airway clear

7

What is Normal Breathing Pattern?

Smooth, even, and regular.

8

What is included in the Normal Respiratory Structure?

-Mouth
-Nose
-Sinuses
-Pharynx
-Larynx
-Epiglottis
-Trachea
-Mainstem Bronchi
-Bronchioles
-Alveolar Ducts
-Alveoli
-Lungs

9

Explain respiratory functions of newborns and infants:

-Rapid breathing
-May have occasional pauses between breathes
-First 3 months after birth
-30-60 bpm

10

Explain respiratory functions of toddlers and preschoolers:

-By 3rd year of life
-20-30 bpm
-smooth/regular rhythm

11

Explain respiratory functions of a child and adolescent:

-By school-age
-bpm steadily slow to adult rate 18-26 bpm

12

Explain respiratory function of adults and older adults:

-Thoracic wall becomes more rigid
-Protective functions of lungs are impaired
-Normal PaO2 decreases with decreased response to hypercapnia
-12-20 bpm

13

What are factors affecting respiratory function:

-Body position
-Injury
-Environment
-Lifestyle and habits
-Family History
-Causes of increased work of breathing (Restricted lung movement/ airway obstruction)

14

What does altered respiratory function include?

-Cough
-Sputum production
-SOB
-Chest pain

15

What do you want to take into consideration when doing a respiratory assessment?

-Normal pattern assessment
-Risk identification
-Dysfunction identification

16

What are components of a physical respiratory assessment?

-Auscultation
-Inspection
-Palpation
-Percussion

17

What is respiratory Point-of-Care Testing assessment?

Pulse Oximetry

18

What is a respiratory Laboratory Studies assessment?

-Sputum culture
-ABG monitoring
-EtCO2 monitoring

19

What are types of respiratory Diagnostic Procedure assessments?

-Chest x-ray
-Bronchoscopy
-Skin tests

20

What are possible respiratory Nursing Diagnoses?

-Ineffective breathing pattern
-Ineffective airway clearance
-Impaired gas exchange

21

What general areas should be included in the formulation of respiratory patient goals and outcomes?

-Knowledge regarding prevention of respiratory dysfunction
-Adequate oxygenation of tissues
-Ability to mobilize pulmonary secretions
-Effective coping with self-concept and lifestyle

22

What are implementation aspects of respiratory health promotion?

-Preventing respiratory illness
-Encouraging smoking cessation
-Reducing allergens
-Monitoring peak flow
-Providing adequate hydration
-Positioning and ambulation
-Deep breathing
-Assisting with incentive spirometry

23

What are interventions for altered respiratory function?

-Coughing
-Pursed lips breathing
-Chest physiotherapy
-Aerosol therapy
-Dyspnea management
-Hyperventilation management
-Assisted ventilation
-Artificial airways
-Suctioning
-Chest tubes
-Emergency airway measures
-Oxygen therapy

24

Oxygen therapy is used primarily to reverse hypoxemia and to accomplish what three goals?

-Improve tissue oxygenation
-Decrease work of breathing in patients with dyspnea
-Decrease work of the heart in patients with cardiac disease

25

What are types of oxygenation delivery systems?

-Nasal Cannula
-Venturi Mask
-Simple Oxygen Mask
-Reservoir-Type (nonrebreather) Mask
-Mechanical Ventilator
-Transtracheal Catheters

26

What are considerations for the use of oxygen therapy at home?

-Medications
-Energy Conservation
-Home Oxygen Systems
-Fostering Self-Esteem