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Three Emperors' League

1. Mid 19th century BCE; Germany

2. A conservative alliance created by Bismarck that linked the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia against radical movements.

3. It initially disbanded in 1875 over territorial disputes in the Balkans.

4. In 1877 and 1878, more conflict resulted and Bismarck attempted to make peace but only resulted in infuriating Russian nationalists.

5. This lead Bismarck to form an alliance with Austria and later Italy against Russia which led to the formation of the Triple Alliance in 1882.


Triple Alliance

1. Late 19th century BCE; Germany

2.  The military alliance between Germany, Austria–Hungary, and Italy,  that lasted from 1882until the start of World War I in 1914.

3. Each member promised support if any other member were to be attacked, or for Germany and Italy, an attack by France.

4. The Triple Alliance contrasted the Triple Entente, which consisted of an alliance between Britain, France and Russia.


Triple Entente

1. Early 20th century BCE; 

2. The alliance of Great Britain, France, and Russia in the First World War.

3. It served as a powerful counterweight to the Triple Alliance.

4. The Triple Entente contrasted the Triple Alliance which consisted of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy.


Trench Warfare

1. Early 20th century BCE;

2. A form of warfare that consisted of large trenches, mines, and barbed wire from which troops faught behind.

3. Millions were killed and territrial gains were minimal.

4. Changed with new weapons like gas masks, tanks, machine guns, etc., but ultimately failed.



1. Early 20th century BCE; Britain

2. The name of the British passenger liner that was sunk by a German submarine in May.

3. More than a thousand people, including 139 Americans, died and President Woodrow Wilson protested.

4. Germany was forced to restrict its submarine warfare for almost two years or face war with the United States.


Total War

1. Early 20th century;

2. A government of national unity that began to plan and control economic and social life in order to make the greatest possible military effort.

3. These total war economies involved entire populations, which blurred distinction between soldiers and civilians.

4. The Auxiliary Service Law was created but as more men left, food production fell and the War Raw Materials Board was created to help ration out food.


War Raw Materials Board

1. 20th century BCE

2. Created  by Jewish industrialist Walter Rathenau to ration and distribute raw materials.

3. Materials from foreign oil to barnyard manure were inventoried and rationed and synthetic rubber and nitrates were created.

4. This led to massive deficit financing and inflation, as well as a shortage of food where people were living on less than a thousand calories a day and only pregnant women and children recieved milk rations.


Auxiliary Service Law

1.  20th Century BCE; Germany

2. A German law that required all males between the ages of seventeen and sixty to work only at jobs that were considered crtical to the war effort.

3. In Germany, total war led to history's first totalitarian society.



The Provisional Government

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2. Established equality before the law; freedom of religion, speech, and assembly; and the right of unions to organize and strike.

3.  Socialists like Alexander Kerensky and liberal leaders of the provisional government rejected social revolution.

4.  The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks took over on November 1917. 


Petrograd  Soviet

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2. A counter-government  made up of masses of workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals.

3. It issued its own radical orders, further weakening the provisional government.


Army Order  No. 1

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2.  The most famous radical order of the Petrograd Soviet that stripped officers of their authority and gave power to elected committees of common soldiers.

3. It led to a complete collapse of army discipline 



1.  Early 20th century BCE; Russia

2. Lenin's majority group that, althoguh it did not last very long, gave Lenin the tough, disciplined, revolutionary group her wanted.

3. Lenin's Bolsheviks contrasted the Mensheviks or minority group.

4. While Lenin demanded and small, disciplined, elitist party, his opponents wanted a more democratic party.


Constituent Assembly

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2. A freely elected assembly that met for only one day after  the Bolsheviks realized that they had won fewer than one-fourth of the seats and permanently disbanded it.

3.  For the next three years, the people wanted an end to the Bolsheviks.

4. Officers organized a White opposition and the Whites came from many social groups, united by their hatred of the Bolsheviks.


War Communism

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2. The application of the total-war concept to a civil conflict.

3. The Bolsheviks seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized all banks and industry, and required everyone to work.

4. Differed from the War Raw Materials Board since it gave people food as opposed to taking it away.

5. Was similar to the Auxiliary Service Law which required all males between seventeen and sixty to work.


League of Nations

1. 20th century BCE; Paris

2. A permanent international organization established during the peace conference in Paris 1919.

3. It was designed to protect member states from aggression and ward off future wars.

4. In the end though, it failed and left Germany vulnerable to Hitler's promises to restore Germany to its greatness.


The Treaty of Versailles

1. 20th century BCE;

2. Delcrared Germany responsible for the war and limited Germany's army to one hundred thousand men.

3. Germany was forced to pay reparations equal to all civilian damages caused by the war.

4. The United States refused to ratify the Treaty of Versailles without making changes to articles in the League of Nations.

5. The United States did not join the League of Nations and later Great Britain followed suit and refused to ratify its defensive alliance with France.


Leon Trotsky

1. 20th century BCE; Russia

2.  Was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist.

3. Brilliantly executed the Bolshevik seizure of power.

4. Trotsky followers and Bolshevik soldiers seized government buildings and arrested provisional government members.


Vladimir Lenin

1. Early 20th century BCE; Russia

2. Lenin stressed that only violent revolution could destroy capitalism.

3. He believed that a socialist revolution was possible even in a country like Russia, where capitalism was not fully developed.

4. He stressed the necessity of a highly disciplined workers' party controlled strictly by elitists, intellectuals, and full-time revolutionaries.

5. After the Bolsheviks seized power from the provisional government, they passed all power to the soviets and named Lenin head of the new government.


Georges Clemenceau

1. Early 20th century BCE; France

2. Established a virtual dictatorship.

3. He wanted revenge on Germany, and lasting security for France, which he believed required the demilitarization of Germany.

4. He agreed to a compromise and gave up the French demand for a Rhineland buffer state in return for a formal defensive alliance with the United States and Great Britain.



Lloyd George

1. 20th century BCE; Britain

2. Wanted Germany to pay for the war.

3. Was personally inclined to make peace with Germany but was persuaded otherwise.

4. Promised Clemenceau that Britain would come to France's aid if France was ever attacked.


President Wilson

1. Early 20th century; United States

2. Made the Fourteen Points peace proposal which stressed national self-determination and the rights of small countries.

3. He insisted on the creation of the League of Nations, since he believed only it could protect states from future wars.

4. He disagreed with both Lloyd George and Clemenceau who seemed primarily concerned with punishing Germany.

5. In the end though, a compromise was made and Wilson won his goal of a permanent international organization.