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Flashcards in Ch 3 Deck (44):
1

Perception

Consumer's awareness and interpretation of reality

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Exposure

Process of bringing some stimulus within proximity of a consumer so that the consumer can sense it with one of the five human senses

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Sensation

Consumer's immediate response to a stimulus

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Attention

Purposeful allocation of information-processing capacity toward developing an understanding of some stimulus

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Cognitive organization

Process by which the human brain assembles sensory evidence into something recognizable

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Assimilation

State that results when a stimulus has characteristics such that consumers readily recognize it as belonging to some specific category

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Accommodation

State that results when a stimulus shares some but not all of the characteristics that would lead it to fit neatly in an existing category, and consumers must process exceptions to rules about the category

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Contrast

State that results when a stimulus does not share enough in common with existing categories to allow categorization

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Anthropomorphism

Giving humanlike characteristics to inanimate objects

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Selective exposure

Process of screening out certain stimuli and purposely exposing oneself to other stimuli

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Selective attention

Process of paying attention to only certain stimuli

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Selective distortion

Process by which consumers interpret information in ways that are biased by their previously held beliefs

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Subliminal processing

Way that the human brain deals with very low-strength stimuli, so low that one cannot notice anything

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Absolute threshold

Minimum strength of a stimulus that can be perceived

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Subliminal persuasion

Behavior change induced by subliminal processing

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JND

Just noticeable difference

Condition in which one stimulus is sufficiently stronger than another so that someone can actually notice that the two are not the same

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Weber's Law

Law that states that a consumer's ability to detect differences between two levels of a stimulus decreases as the intensity of the initial stimulus increases

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JMD

just meaningful difference

Smallest amount of change in a stimulus that would influence consumer consumption and choice

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Explicit memory

Memory that develops when a person is exposed to, attends, and tries to remember information

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Implicit memory

Memory for things that a person did not try to remember

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Preattentive effects

Learning that occurs without attention

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Mere exposure effect

Effect that leads consumers to prefer a stimulus to which they've previously been exposed

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Mere association effect

The transfer of meaning between objects that are similar only by accidental association

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Product placements

Products that have been placed conspicuously in movies or television shows

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Involuntary attention

Attention that is beyond the conscious control of a consumer

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Orientation reflex

Natural reflex that occurs as a response to something threatening

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Involvement

The personal relevance toward, or interest in, a particular product

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Unintentional learning

Learning that occurs when behavior is modified through a consumer-stimulus interaction without any effortful allocation of cognitive processing capacity toward that stimulus

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Intentional learning

Process by which consumers set out to specifically learn information devoted to a certain subject

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Behaviorist approach to learning

Theory of learning that focuses on changes in behavior due to association without great concern for the cognitive mechanics of the learning process

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Information processing (or cognitive) perspective learning

Perspective that focuses on the cognitive processes associated with comprehension and how these precipitate behavioral changes

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Classical conditioning

Change in behavior that occurs simply through associating some stimulus with another stimulus that naturally causes some reaction; a type of unintentional learning

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Unconditioned stimulus

Stimulus with which a behavioral response is already associated

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Conditioned stimulus

Object or event that does not cause the desired response naturally but that can be conditioned to do so by pairing with an unconditioned stimulus

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Unconditioned response

Response that occurs naturally as a result of exposure to an unconditioned stimulus

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Conditioned response

Response that results from exposure to a conditioned stimulus that was originally associated with the unconditioned stimulus

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Instrumental conditioning

Type of learning in which a behavioral response can be conditioned through reinforcement - either punishment or rewards associated with undesirable or desirable behavior

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Positive reinforcers

Reinforces that take the form of a reward

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Discriminative stimuli

Stimuli that differentiate one choice from another through the presence of a reinforcer

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Shaping

Process through which a desired behavior is altered over time, in small increments

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Punishers

Stimuli that decrease the likelihood that a behavior will persist

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Negative reinforcement

Removal of harmful stimuli as a way of encouraging behavior

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Extinction

Process through which behaviors cease due to lack of reinforcement

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Learning (evaluation)

Change in behavior resulting from some interaction between a person and a stimulus