Ch. 3 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Ch. 1-3 > Ch. 3 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 3 Deck (44):
1

4 Groups of Tissues

Epithelial, connective, muscle, neural

2

3 ways to visualize cells

Light microscopy*, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy

3

How many nuclei does each epithelial tissue have?

one

4

What are epithelial tissues attached to?

basement membrane

5

How do cells form tissues?

Cell-cell junctions and cell-matrix junctions

6

tight junction

keeps cells together to prevent things from sneaking between the cells

7

Gap junction

for communication purposes (heart), allows certain types to come in, others not

8

A group of specialized cells that perform a limited set of functions

Tissues

9

Characteristics of epithelial tissue

cellularity, polarity (apical versus basolateral), attachment to basal lamina, avascularity (without blood flow), arranged in sheets or layers

10

Functions of epithelial tissue

physical protection, controls permeability, provide sensation, produces secretions

11

Cilia

beat in a coordinated fashion and move substance along the surface of the epithelial cell

12

Where are cilia found?

in the respiratory system

13

microvilli

foldings on the apical surface, increase surface area of cell, found a lot in cells specialized for absorption and secretion

14

Name 3 types of layered epithelial tissue

Simple, stratified, and pseudostratified

15

Simple Layer is...

every cell attached to basement membrane, one layer

16

Stratified Layer is...

second layer or more, not every cell is attached to basement membrane

17

Pseudostratified layer is...

looks stratified, but every cell is attached to basement membrane (upper respiratory system)

18

Squamous cell shape...

flat

19

Name 3 types of epithelial cell shapes

squamous, cuboidal, or columnar

20

You name epithelial tissue by describing the...

layers (simple or stratified) and shape (simple squamous or simple columnar)

21

Simple Squamous (locations)

mesothelia (ventral body cavities), endothelia (lining heart, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels), lungs, kidneys (glomerular capillary)

22

Stratified Squamous (keratinized) (location)

epidermis of skin

23

Stratified squamous (non-keratinized) (location)

lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum, anus, vagina

24

Simple cuboidal (location)

ducts of glands, kidney tubules

25

Stratified cuboidal (location)

ducts of some glands (sweat glands)

26

simple columnar (location)

nonciliated: stomach, intestines
ciliated: fallopian tubes, uterus

27

stratified columnar (location)

pharynx, anus, urethra

28

pseudostratified ciliated columnar (location)

upper respiratory system (nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi)

29

transitional (location)

urinary bladder, ureters, urethra

30

Special cases of epithelial tissue...

transitional and pseudostratified columnar

31

(function) present at sites where the processes of filtration (such as blood filtration in the kidneys), diffusion (such as diffusion of oxygen into blood vessels of the lungs), and secretion (in serous membrane) occur. Not found in body areas that are subject to mechanical stress (wear and tear)

Simple squamous epithelium tissue

32

Simple cuboidal epithelium tissue (function)

secretion and absorption

33

(function) secretion and absorption, but the larger columnar cells contain more organelles and are therefore capable of a higher level of secretion and absorption than are cuboidal cell. Secreted mucus serves as a lubricant for the linings of the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive tracts, and most of the urinary tract. Mucus also helps prevent destruction of the stomach lining by acidic gastric juice secreted by the stomach

Nonciliated simple columnar epithelium tissue

34

(function) the cilia beat in unison, moving the mucus and any foreign particles toward the throat, where they can be coughed up and swallowed or spit out. Coughing and sneezing speed up the movement of cilia and mucus. Cilia also help move oocytes expelled from the ovaries through the uterine (fallopian) tubes into the uterus

Ciliated Simple Columnar epithelium tissue

35

nonciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium tissue (function)

absorption and secretion

36

ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium tissue (function)

secretes mucus that traps foreign particles, and the cilia sweep away the mucus for eventual elimination from the body

37

stratified squamous epithelium tissue (function)

protection against abrasion, water loss, UV radiation, and foreign invasion. Both types of stratified squamous epithelium form the first line of defense against microbes

38

stratified cuboidal epithelium tissue (function)

protection and limited secretion and absorption

39

stratified columnar epithelium tissue (function)

protection and secretion

40

transitional epithelium (urothelium) (function)

it allows the urinary organs to stretch to hold a variable amount of fluid without rupturing, while still serving as a protective lining

41

endocrine glands epithelium tissue (function)

hormones regulate many metabolic and physiological activities to maintain homeostasis

42

endocrine glands (location)

pituitary glands at base of brain, pineal gland in brain, thyroid and parathyroid glands near larynx, adrenal glads superior to kidneys, pancreas near stomach, ovaries in pelvic cavity, testes in scrotum, and thymus in thoracic cavity

43

exocrine glands (function)

produce substances such as sweat (to help lower body temp), oil, earwax, saliva, or digestive enzymes

44

exocrine glands (location)

sweat, oil, and earwax glands of the skin; digestive glands such as salivary glands, which secrete into mouth cavity, and pancreas, which secretes into the small intestine