Ch. 1 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy Ch. 1-3 > Ch. 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ch. 1 Deck (64):
1

Inspection

Identify changes from normal

2

Percussion

Hollow vs. solid sounds

3

Ascultation

stethoscope

4

Palpation

touch

5

No ill effects, real-time image, not good clarity, uses high frequency soundwaves and echoes

Ultrasound

6

lighted instrument w/ lens, good image

Endoscopy

7

quick, simple, 2 dimensional, inexpensive

x-ray

8

inserts injected into body make hollow organs visible

contrast x-ray

9

x-ray that is better at soft tissue and organ detail because the x-ray source rotates around the body and completes revolutions; 3 D

computed tomography (CT)

10

not as detailed for bones, magnet source, not for patients with metal in the body, BEST at soft tissue resolution

MRI

11

Look at physiology, metabolism, examine activity levels, dark = metabolicly active

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

12

metabolic activity of tissues, shows tissue activity

Radionucleotide Scanning

13

One system at a time, relating back to systems

Systemic approach to study anatomy, what we use

14

visible with unaided eye

gross

15

slides of tissues and cells

microscopic

16

Levels of Organization

Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organ, System, Organism

17

The relative constancy of the internal environment of the body even with external fluctuations

Homeostasis

18

T or F: size of system correlates with its importance

F

19

Why is anatomical position so important?

So there is a standard everyone references when discussing location of organs within the body/starting point

20

Regions of the body?

Head, neck, trunk, upper extremities, lower extremities

21

Subdivisions of the trunk

Thorax/chest, abdomen, pelvis

22

Organs in Right Upper Quadrant

liver, gallbladder, right kidney, portions of stomach, small and large intestine

23

Organs in LUQ

left lobe of liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, portions of small and large intestine

24

Where do quadrant lines intersect?

Umbilicus

25

Organs in RLQ

cecum (part of large intestine), appendix, portions of small intestine, reproductive organs (right home in females, right spermatic cord in males), right ureter

26

Organs in LLQ

most of small intestine and portions of large intestine, reproductive organs (left ovary in females and left spermatic cord in males), left ureter

27

Chondro-

cartilage

28

T or F: the femoral region is superior to the pedal region

F, use proximal or distal when concerning extremities

29

Divides body into anterior and posterior

Frontal/Coronal

30

Divides body into left and right

Mid-saggital

31

To the right or left of the mid-saggital line

para-saggital

32

Divides body into superior and inferior

Transverse

33

Organs in dorsal cavity

brain and spinal cord

34

Sections of ventral cavity

Thoracic cavity and abdominopelvic cavity

35

Sections of thoracic cavity

pleural cavity, pericardial cavity, and mediastinum

36

Pleural cavity contains...

area surrounding the lungs

37

Pericardial cavity

space between the layers of the pericardium that surrounds the heart`

38

Mediastinum contains...

central portion of the thoracic cavity contains the heart

39

Abdominal cavity...

contains stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestine, most of large intestine

40

Pelvic cavity...

contains bladder, portions of large intestine, and internal organs of reproduction

41

Viscera (organs)

Organs in the thoracic cavity and the abdominal pelvic cavity

42

Two parts of serous membrane

visceral/parietal and pleura, pericardial, peritoneal

43

Encloses organs

visceral

44

Lines body wall

parietal

45

pleura

lungs

46

pericardial

heart

47

peritoneal

abdominopelvic / abdominal

48

visceral pleura

outer surface of lungs

49

parietal pleura

wall of body right outside the lungs

50

visceral pericardium

outer surface of the heart

51

parietal pericardium

wall of body outside of heart

52

visceral peritoneum

membrane on the outer surface of the stomach, SI, LI, organs in the abdominal cavity

53

parietal peritoneum

wall of body outside of abdominal organs

54

serous membranes of the abdominal cavity

peritoneum

55

large fat-filled folds that fold over one another in the peritoneum

peritoneal folds

56

Functions of peritoneal folds

bind organs to one another, support/stabilize position of organs in the abdominal cavity, provide route for blood vessels to and from these organs

57

greater omentum

Attached to greater curve of stomach, lots of adipose tissue

58

lesser omentum

attaches to lesser curvature of stomach, connects stomach to the liver

59

falciform ligament

between right and left lobes of liver, attaches liver to anterior abdominal wall

60

messentary (proper)

connects to small intestine to posterior abdominal wall

61

transverse mesocolon

attach transverse portion of colon to posterior abdominal wall

62

sigmoid mesocolon

attach sigmoid portion of colon to posterior abdominal wall

63

What are retroperitoneal organs?

Organs behind the peritoneal cavity

64

Name some retroperitoneal organs using SAD PUCKER

Suprarenal (adrenal) glands
Aorta/Inferior Vena Cava
Duodenum (second and third segments)
Pancreas
Ureters
Colon (ascending and descending only)
Kidneys
Esophagus
Rectum