Ch 3 - Bonding Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 3 - Bonding Deck (15):
1

Covalent

Electrons shared between atoms

2

Ionic bonds

Electrons transferred from one atom to another.

3

Principle quantum number

N corresponds to energy level and therefore size of a given electron in an atom
1-infinity but mcat stops at 7

4

Azimuthal quantum number

L
Describes shape
values range from 0 to n-1 and correspond to s, p, d, f orbitals
0 - s
1 - p
2 - d
3 - f
Energy increase as number increase

5

Magnetic quantum number

m sub l
Describes orientation
Ranges from negative L to positive L

6

Spin quantum number

m sub s
Describes spin and is either +1/2 or -1/2

7

Molecular orbitals

Obtained by adding or subtracting wave functions. Math not on mcat

Bonding orbital - signs of wave functions are same (+,+ or -,-) lower energy more stable
antibonding opposite of above

8

Sigma bond

Head to head or tail to talk overlap
All single bonds are sigma

9

Pi bonds

Triple and double bonds contain two pi and one sigma or one pi and one sigma bond
Shorter and shorter in length and the more bonds the more difficult to break. Although alone these bonds are easier to break than sigma

10

Resonance structures

Resonance structures differ in their placement of electrons in hybridized p-orbitals and require bond conjugation to delocalize electrons in a molecule.
Occurs in molecules with conjugated bonds

11

Hybrid orbitals

Mixing different orbitals
sp3 sp2 sp

12

sp3 hybridization

Tetrahedral geometry
25% s
75% p

13

sp2 hybridization

Alkenes
33% s
67% p
The three sp2 orbitals are 120 degrees apart

14

Sp hybridization

Triple bond
50% s
50% p

15

Conjugation

Requires alternating single and multiple bonds because this pattern aligns a number of unhybridized p-orbitals down the backbone of the molecule