Flashcards in CH 3 Nucleic Acids and The Encoding of Biological Info Deck (26):
A rare error that takes place during the DNA replication process
What is RNA?
An intermediary molecule responsible for translation
What is transcription?
Genetic information of a molecule is used as a template to generate a molecule of RNA
Define gene expression
Production of a functional gene product
RNA is used as a code for the sequence of amino aids in a protein
What is the purpose of DNA?
Stores genetic informationTransmits informationEasily and accurately replicatedIndirectly directs cellular activity
What is a nucleotide?
DNA structural sub unit consists of a sugar, base and phosphate groupSugar and phosphate group forms the back boneBase gives the nucleotide it's chemical identity
What is a nucleoside?
A combination of a sugar and a base
Define a phosphodiester bond
Is a C-O-P-O-C linkage that bonds the DNA togetherStable bond that resists heat and changes in PH
Why are the major and minor grooves important?
Outside contours of the twisted double helix important for the proteins who interact with DNA to recognize a particular sequence
What are the complimentary bases?
A to T requires two H-bondsC to G requires one H-bonds
What is base stacking?
Is the stabilizing force that occurs between the bases. Flat surfaces of the bases stick together away from the water molecule as they are hydrophobic
What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryote DNA?
Prokaryote DNA is circular and eukaryote DNA is linear
Enzymes that cleave, partially unwind and reattach a DNA strand
What is a chromatin and it's associated histome?
DNA plus it's associated proteins( histomes)Histomes are proteins rich in (+) charged amino acids
Define anti parallel
Oppositely oriented strands of DNA
What are the main difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA : sugar is deoxyribose, bases are A,T,C,G, 5' end is a monophosphate, size is very large, double strandedRNA: sugar is ribose, bases are A, U, C, G, 5' end is a triphosphate, size is smaller, with a single bond
Regions where the RNA transcription begins
Point where transcription ends
What is a housekeeping gene?
A gene that is continuously transcribing
Explain promoter recognition for prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes have a sigma factor and housekeeping genes and RNA polymersEukaryotes have general transcription factors, transcriptional activation proteins, mediation complex, RNA polymerase 2
What is replication?
The copying process for DNA
Identify the four bases of DNA
Know the chemical structure of DNA
How are the two complimentary base pairs held together in DNA?