CH 3 Nucleic Acids and The Encoding of Biological Info Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 3 Nucleic Acids and The Encoding of Biological Info Deck (26):
1

Define mutation

A rare error that takes place during the DNA replication process

2

What is RNA?

An intermediary molecule responsible for translation

3

What is transcription?

Genetic information of a molecule is used as a template to generate a molecule of RNA

4

Define gene expression

Production of a functional gene product

5

Define translation

RNA is used as a code for the sequence of amino aids in a protein

6

What is the purpose of DNA?

Stores genetic informationTransmits informationEasily and accurately replicatedIndirectly directs cellular activity

7

What is a nucleotide?

DNA structural sub unit consists of a sugar, base and phosphate groupSugar and phosphate group forms the back boneBase gives the nucleotide it's chemical identity

8

What is a nucleoside?

A combination of a sugar and a base

9

Define a phosphodiester bond

Is a C-O-P-O-C linkage that bonds the DNA togetherStable bond that resists heat and changes in PH

10

Why are the major and minor grooves important?

Outside contours of the twisted double helix important for the proteins who interact with DNA to recognize a particular sequence

11

What are the complimentary bases?

A to T requires two H-bondsC to G requires one H-bonds

12

What is base stacking?

Is the stabilizing force that occurs between the bases. Flat surfaces of the bases stick together away from the water molecule as they are hydrophobic

13

What is the difference between eukaryotes and prokaryote DNA?

Prokaryote DNA is circular and eukaryote DNA is linear

14

Define topoisomerases

Enzymes that cleave, partially unwind and reattach a DNA strand

15

What is a chromatin and it's associated histome?

DNA plus it's associated proteins( histomes)Histomes are proteins rich in (+) charged amino acids

16

Define anti parallel

Oppositely oriented strands of DNA

17

What are the main difference between DNA and RNA?

DNA : sugar is deoxyribose, bases are A,T,C,G, 5' end is a monophosphate, size is very large, double strandedRNA: sugar is ribose, bases are A, U, C, G, 5' end is a triphosphate, size is smaller, with a single bond

18

Define promoters

Regions where the RNA transcription begins

19

Define terminator

Point where transcription ends

20

What is a housekeeping gene?

A gene that is continuously transcribing

21

Explain promoter recognition for prokaryotes and eukaryotes

Prokaryotes have a sigma factor and housekeeping genes and RNA polymersEukaryotes have general transcription factors, transcriptional activation proteins, mediation complex, RNA polymerase 2

22

What is replication?

The copying process for DNA

23

Identify the four bases of DNA

Ok

24

Know the chemical structure of DNA

Ok

25

How are the two complimentary base pairs held together in DNA?

H bonds

26

Eukaryote DNA is a said to be what?

Linear