Flashcards in CH 5 Organizing Principles Deck (46):
What are the three points of cell theory?
All organisms are made up of cellsThe cell is the fundamental unit of lifeCells come from pre existing cells
Phospholipid with both hydrophobic and hydrophillic ends
What is a Micelle lipid structure?
It is a one tail closed structure
What is a bylayer lipid structure?
Two tail closed structure
What is a liposome structure?What makes it important?
Small Inclosed bylayer structureUseful for the delivery of medicineit can spontaneously form
What holds lipids together?
Vander walls bonds Hydrophobic and hydrophillic end members
What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?
Saturated has single bondsUnsaturated has one double bond
What is the purpose of cholesterol?
At high temperatures cholesterol aids in keeping lipids togetherAt low temperatures cholesterol aids in keeping lipids fluid
Define lipid rafts?
Specific lipids that cluster in patches in the plasma membrane
Define channel proteins?
Open pore that allows free movement in and out of the cell
Define carrier proteins
Facilitate binding and releasing through the cell membrane
Define receptor proteins
Extra cellular signalsReceives instructions for environment
Define anchor proteins
Attaches to give cell shape and structure
What is the difference between integral and peripheral proteins?
Integral proteins span the entire cell membranePeripheral proteins are found either internally or externally
Explain the fluid mosaic model
Lipids and proteins coexist in the membrane, forming a "mosaic"Molecules moves laterally in the membrane, so membrane is "fluid"
Define the plasma membrane
Boundary that defines the space of the cellSeparates internal components from the surrounding environmentActively maintains intracellular conditions compatible with life (homeostasis is an active process)
Define cell walls
Maintains shape and internal composition of cells in some organisms(Protective)
Movement of solute from high to low concentrations through a permeable membrane
Does moving from high to low concentrations require energy?
Diffusion of water from high to low concentration
What are aquaporins?
Specific proteins channels that facilitate after diffusion
Does primary active transport require energy? And if yes why?
YesBecause transport against a concentration gradient require ATP
What's pump is essential for cell homeostasis?
The sodium potassium pump
Define secondary active transport
Transport driven by the creation of an electrochemical gradient and therefore energy provided is from the movement of protons and not by ATP directly
Define a cotransporter
Coupled movement down concentration gradient of molecules or ions with the unfavourable (against conc gradient) of another
What is the role of ATP in secondary active transport?
Used to create a electrochemical gradient to move molecules against a concentration gradient
Who is Robert Hooke?
First person to coin the term "cell"
Explain the four types of cell structure as they relate to osmosis in a solution with the solute concentration in extra cellular space
Hypertonic is shrivelledIsotonic is in homeostasisHypotonic is swollenVery hypotonic is lysed
Define secondary active transport
Creation of an electrochemical gradient (using ATP) in the membrane provides energy for the movement of ions against their concentration gradient (proton movement provides energy)
What is a vacuole?
A cell structure that absorbs water and contributes to turgor pressure
Do prokaryotes have organelles?
What are the 6 main differences between pro and eukaryotes?
Prokaryotes. EukaryoteNucleus. No. YesTranscription location. Cytoplasm. NucleusTranslation location. Cytoplasm. CytoplasmCell membrane Additions. Hopanoids. Sterols(cholesterol)Size Small. LargeInternal organization. No organelles. Organelles
What are plasmids?
Small circular DNA separate from genomic DNA
Interior space of endomembrane system
What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?
Rough ER has ribosomes attached Smooth ER doesn't have ribosomes attached
How unattached ribosomes know when to attach to the ER?
With a signal sequence
What occurs in the smooth ER?
Site of fatty acid and protein synthesis
What Is smooth vs rough ER dependant on?
The function of the cell
What are three functions of Golgi apparatus?
Further modify proteins and lipids in glyco proteins and glyco lipidsSorts proteins and lipids to their final destinationSynthesis most of the cells carbohydrates
What is a lysosome? Is it acidic of basic?
Helps break down macromolecules to be used by the cellAcidic pH of 5
Explain the process of protein destiny?
Free ribosomes code proteins, within those proteins a sequence of amino acids determines the destination of that protein.
Where are no signal peptide destined?
Where are amino-terminal signal destined?
To the chloroplast or mitochondria
Where are internal signal proteins destined?
Where are three places proteins produced by ribosomes on the RER end up?
Within the lumen of endomembrane systemEmbedded in its membraneSecreted out of the cell