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Flashcards in CH 5 Organizing Principles Deck (46):
1

What are the three points of cell theory?

All organisms are made up of cellsThe cell is the fundamental unit of lifeCells come from pre existing cells

2

Define amphipathic

Phospholipid with both hydrophobic and hydrophillic ends

3

What is a Micelle lipid structure?

It is a one tail closed structure

4

What is a bylayer lipid structure?

Two tail closed structure

5

What is a liposome structure?What makes it important?

Small Inclosed bylayer structureUseful for the delivery of medicineit can spontaneously form

6

What holds lipids together?

Vander walls bonds Hydrophobic and hydrophillic end members

7

What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated?

Saturated has single bondsUnsaturated has one double bond

8

What is the purpose of cholesterol?

At high temperatures cholesterol aids in keeping lipids togetherAt low temperatures cholesterol aids in keeping lipids fluid

9

Define lipid rafts?

Specific lipids that cluster in patches in the plasma membrane

10

Define channel proteins?

Open pore that allows free movement in and out of the cell

11

Define carrier proteins

Facilitate binding and releasing through the cell membrane

12

Define receptor proteins

Extra cellular signalsReceives instructions for environment

13

Define anchor proteins

Attaches to give cell shape and structure

14

What is the difference between integral and peripheral proteins?

Integral proteins span the entire cell membranePeripheral proteins are found either internally or externally

15

Explain the fluid mosaic model

Lipids and proteins coexist in the membrane, forming a "mosaic"Molecules moves laterally in the membrane, so membrane is "fluid"

16

Define the plasma membrane

Boundary that defines the space of the cellSeparates internal components from the surrounding environmentActively maintains intracellular conditions compatible with life (homeostasis is an active process)

17

Define cell walls

Maintains shape and internal composition of cells in some organisms(Protective)

18

Explain diffusion

Movement of solute from high to low concentrations through a permeable membrane

19

Does moving from high to low concentrations require energy?

No

20

Define osmosis

Diffusion of water from high to low concentration

21

What are aquaporins?

Specific proteins channels that facilitate after diffusion

22

Does primary active transport require energy? And if yes why?

YesBecause transport against a concentration gradient require ATP

23

What's pump is essential for cell homeostasis?

The sodium potassium pump

24

Define secondary active transport

Transport driven by the creation of an electrochemical gradient and therefore energy provided is from the movement of protons and not by ATP directly

25

Define a cotransporter

Coupled movement down concentration gradient of molecules or ions with the unfavourable (against conc gradient) of another

26

What is the role of ATP in secondary active transport?

Used to create a electrochemical gradient to move molecules against a concentration gradient

27

Who is Robert Hooke?

First person to coin the term "cell"

28

Explain the four types of cell structure as they relate to osmosis in a solution with the solute concentration in extra cellular space

Hypertonic is shrivelledIsotonic is in homeostasisHypotonic is swollenVery hypotonic is lysed

29

Define secondary active transport

Creation of an electrochemical gradient (using ATP) in the membrane provides energy for the movement of ions against their concentration gradient (proton movement provides energy)

30

What is a vacuole?

A cell structure that absorbs water and contributes to turgor pressure

31

Do prokaryotes have organelles?

No

32

What are the 6 main differences between pro and eukaryotes?

Prokaryotes. EukaryoteNucleus. No. YesTranscription location. Cytoplasm. NucleusTranslation location. Cytoplasm. CytoplasmCell membrane Additions. Hopanoids. Sterols(cholesterol)Size Small. LargeInternal organization. No organelles. Organelles

33

What are plasmids?

Small circular DNA separate from genomic DNA

34

Define lumen

Interior space of endomembrane system

35

What is the difference between rough ER and smooth ER?

Rough ER has ribosomes attached Smooth ER doesn't have ribosomes attached

36

How unattached ribosomes know when to attach to the ER?

With a signal sequence

37

What occurs in the smooth ER?

Site of fatty acid and protein synthesis

38

What Is smooth vs rough ER dependant on?

The function of the cell

39

What are three functions of Golgi apparatus?

Further modify proteins and lipids in glyco proteins and glyco lipidsSorts proteins and lipids to their final destinationSynthesis most of the cells carbohydrates

40

What is a lysosome? Is it acidic of basic?

Helps break down macromolecules to be used by the cellAcidic pH of 5

41

Explain the process of protein destiny?

Free ribosomes code proteins, within those proteins a sequence of amino acids determines the destination of that protein.

42

Where are no signal peptide destined?

The cytosol

43

Where are amino-terminal signal destined?

To the chloroplast or mitochondria

44

Where are internal signal proteins destined?

The nucleus

45

Where are three places proteins produced by ribosomes on the RER end up?

Within the lumen of endomembrane systemEmbedded in its membraneSecreted out of the cell

46

What are the four things that makes mitochondria and chloroplast important?

Not part of the endomembrane systemThese organelles harness energy for the cellContain their own genomesSemi-autonomous. Grow and multiply independently of other membrane compartments