CH 11 Cell Division Reading Guide Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CH 11 Cell Division Reading Guide Deck (66):
1

What does a daughter cell need from the mother cell in order to be functional and viable?

Full compliment of DNA from both parent cellsParent cell must be large enough to divide and contribute cytoplasmic components like proteins, lipids and macromolecules

2

Define the cell cycle

Series of steps that make up cell divisionConsists of two main stage s phase and m phase

3

Define binary fission

Splitting of DNA by asexual reproduction

4

How is prokaryotic DNA organized in the cell and how is different from eukaryotic DNA in the cell?

Prokaryotic DNA is arranged in a ring within the cellEukaryotic DNA is stored as chromosomes in the nuclear envelop

5

Describe cell pinching for prokaryotes?

Begins with synthesis of new membrane and wall material at the mid point

6

Define genome how many genomes are present in each cell go the human body?

Compete set of DNA found inside a cell2 because humans are diploid

7

Where in the cell is the genome housed in a eukaryotic vs a prokaryotic cell?

Eukaryotic genome is found in the nuclear envelopProkaryotic genome is found as a ring at the edge of the cell membrane

8

How May eukaryotic cell division and prokaryotic cell division be related?

Dinoflagellates single called eukaryotes keep their nuclear membrane during cell division therefore the nuclear membrane splits similar to binary fission

9

What occurs during interphase? How long does it last?

Replication of DNA Increase of cell size 10 to 14 hours

10

What occurs during m phase ?

Mitosis the separation of the chromosomes into two nucleiCytokinesis division of the cell into two separate cells

11

Explain G1 of interphase

Size and protein content increase Specific regulatory proteins are made and activated Preparation time for S phase

12

Explain G2 of interphase

Preparation time for M phaseSize and protein content increase in time for cell division

13

Explain S phase

Replication of the entire DNA content

14

Explain G0 phase

Exite the cell cycle and perform specialty functionEx metabolism and detoxification in liver cells

15

How are eukaryotic genomes organized in the cell?

Organized with histomes into chromatids Wichita are looped and packed as chromosomes

16

What is the average length of a DNA strand in eukaryotic cells?

1 to 2 meters

17

Define diploid

A cell with two complete sets of chromosomes

18

How many chromosomes in a human skin cell?

46

19

Define a karyotype how are they arranged?

Portrait formed by a number of chromosomes arranged by size largest to smallest

20

Define homologous chromosomes

22 pairs of identical chromosomes

21

Where do you get your two homologous of chromosomes?

One from the mother and one from the father

22

Explain prophase

Chromosomes condenseCentrosome radiate microtubules and move to the poles

23

Explain pro metaphase

Mitotic spindle attaches to chromosomes

24

Explain metaphase

Chromosomes align in the Center of the cell

25

Explain anaphase

Centromere splits into sister chromatids separates and travel to opposite poles

26

Explain telophase

Nuclear envelop reforms and chromosomes condense

27

How do chromosomes appear during interphase?

Long and scraggly

28

What is the mitotic spindle made of?

Microtubules

29

When and where does the centrosome move before mitosis can begin?

During S phaseDefine opposite ends of the cell

30

During prophase where do the centrosomes migrate two?

Opposite poles of the cellForm mitotic spindle that acts as guide wires for chromosome movement

31

What is a kinetichore and how does it relate to the centromere?

Protein complexes located on each side of the centromere constriction That attach to the mitotic spindle

32

Where do chromosomes align during metaphase.

In the Center of the cell

33

What must happen for a pair of sister chromatids to separate?

When the centromere is cut resulting in two separate chromosomes

34

During anaphase what motor protein move the chromosomes towards the centrosomes?

Microtubules

35

Explain telophase

Nuclear envelope reforms and the chromosomes condense this marks the end of mitosis

36

Which cytoskeletal component creates the contractile ring during cytokinesis?

Actin

37

How is mitosis different from cytokinesis?

Mitosis doesn't involve e splitting of the cell only making two nuclear envelops of new daughter chromosomes

38

What is the basic difference between gametes and somatic cells?

Gametes are haploid that bind together during sexual reproduction.Somatic cells are diploid

39

What's the first thing that must occur before me ionic cell division can occur?

DNA replication

40

What happens in the first meiotic divion?

Separate the homologsInto their X shape

41

What happens in the second meiotic division?

Separation of the chromatids From X to to II

42

Differences between mitotic and prophase 1 meiosis?

Chromosomes undergo gene to gene pairing in step 2Each pair of homologous chromosomes forms ambivalent in step 3Chiasmata forms during step 4Nuclear envelops breaks down in step 5

43

Define chiasmata and why are they important

Crossover, the physical breakage and reunion of non sister chromatidsImportant because it physically links homologues to each other

44

What lines up on the metaphase plate in meiotic metaphase 1?

The non sister chromatids joined by a chiasma

45

How do bivalvent orientate themselves on the metaphase 1 plate?

Line up so that two centromeres are across each other on the plate Orientation of the bivalve td is otherwise random

46

During anaphase 1 what separates and was doesn't not?

Homologous chromosomes separateSister chromatids do not

47

Explain prophase 2

The nuclear envelop breakdown and the chromosomes condense

48

What lines up during metaphase 2?

Chromosomes line up in the Center of the cell

49

What separates during anaphase 2? What gets cleaved?

The sister chromatids the centrosome gets cut

50

Explain telophase 2

Chromosomes uncoil and the nuclear envelop reforms

51

Define equational division

Cell in meiosis 2 have the same number of chromosomes at the start as they do at the end

52

If strawberries are octopod what ploidy would strawberry eggs and sperm be?

Tetra ploidy? 4 ploidy

53

Why should cell division be regulated, what types of tissues would have higher rates of cell division, why do unicellular organisms bother regulating cell division?

Unregulated cell division lead to cancerEpithelial cells would have high rate of cell divisionUnicellular organisms should only divide when appropriate nutrients are available

54

What are some external signals and internal signals that a cell would use to regulate when to divide?

Ex has all the DNA been replicated during S phaseEx is the cell large enough to support divi on into viable daughter cells

55

Provide some examples of cyclical changes

Chromosomes deco sensing and condensingNuclear envelop breaking and reforming

56

What is the behaviour of cycling during the cell cycle?

Cyclin levels rise and fall with each turn of the cell cycle.

57

Explain cyclin dependant kinases of CDKs

Always present within the cell but only become active when bound to the appropriate cyclin. It is CDK activity that prompts different stages of the cell cycle

58

When do you expect to see maximum and minimum levels of CDK activity?

When the cell is dividing and just finished dividing

59

Do cyclin levels vary thought the cell cycle?

Yes Levels increase and decrease as the embryo divide during mitosis

60

Why might a cell need more than a single cyclin CDK complex?

Because certain stages of the cell cycle are activated by different CDK complexes

61

What might a cell need in place before it can successfully proceed with DNA replication?

Activation of protein complexes involved in DNA replication

62

What is the function of S cyclin- CDK ?

Prevents the replication complex from reassembling the same place and re replicating the same DNA sequence

63

What are the functions of M cyclin CDK?

Phosphorylates structural proteins in the nucleus that trigger breakdown of the nuclear envelopPhosphorylates proteins that regulate the formation of Tubulin into microtubules promoting the formation of the mitotic spindle

64

Where are the three checkpoints found in the cell cycle?

End of G1 detects if DNA is damagedEnd of G2 detects to see is all the DNA is replicatedStart of am phase detects to make sure that all the chromosomes area attached to the spindle

65

When is p53 activated and what is the consequence of activating p53?

Activated when DNA damaged by radiation is detectedIt activates a protein that inhibites the activity of G1/S cyclin CDK thereby arresting the cell in the G1/S transition

66

How is asexual and sexual reproduction different?

Asexual reproduction occurs when a single cell splits into 2 daughter cellsSexual reproduction occurs when genetic material is passed down from 2 parents half the genetic material is passed from the female the other half from the male parent