Ch. 3 - Principles of Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch. 3 - Principles of Neoplasia Deck (215):
1

(blank) is a malignant tumours originating from epithelium.

carcinoma

2

(blank) is a malignant tumour originating from mesenchyme.

sarcoma

3

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a tumour marker indicative of (blank) carcinoma or germ cell line tumours.

hepatocellular

4

beta-hCG is a tumour marker indicative of (blank) cancer(s).

trophoblastic

5

what are the trophoblastic cancers?

Hydatidiform mole, Chorio-carcinoma, Embryonal carcinoma

6

CA-125 is a tumour marker indicative of (blank) carcinoma.

ovarian

7

CA-15-3 is a tumour marker indicative of {(blank) carcinoma.

breast

8

CA-19-9 is a tumour marker indicative of (blank) or (blank) cancer.

colon or pancreatic

9

Calcitonin is a tumour marker indicative of...

{{c1::medullary carcinoma of the thyroid}}

10

How many cellular division occurs in a neoplastic cell population before the earliest clinical symptoms arise?

30

11

How many doublings does it take for a tumour to reach 1 g in mass?

30

12

How many doublings does it take for a tumour to reach 1 kg in mass?

40

13

How many isoforms of G6PD or HUMARA will neoplastic tissue express?

one

14

How many isoforms of G6PD will normal, polyclonal tissue express?

Two; in a 1:1 ratio

15

Neuron specific enolase (NSE) is a tumour marker indicative of....

small cell carcinoma of the lung

16

On which chromosome is the Ig heavy chain gene found?

14

17

Only (blank) tumours have the possibility to exhibit associated fever and/or weight loss.

malignant

18

Osteoblastic radio-dense loci are seen with (blank) cancer. It also involves increased serum ALP indicative of reactive bone formation.

prostate

19

Osteolytic radiolucent loci are seen in (blank) cancer due to production of osteoclast activating factors by the tumour.

breast

20

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a tumour marker indicative of (blank)cancer.

prostate

21

The (blank) lymph node(s) is the first node or group of nodes to receive lymphatic drainage from a tumour in a regional lymphatic basin.

sentinel

22

To which protein in the basal lamina do cancer cells bind in tumour invasion/spread?

Laminin

23

To which protein in the extracellular matrix do cancer cells bind to spread locally?

Fibronectin

24

What are the 2 types of malignant tumours that do not exhibit metastasis?

Basal cell carcinoma and glioma

25

What are the 4 carcinomas that spread hematogenously?

Renal cell carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; choriocarcinoma

26

What is anaplastic tissue?

:Abnormal tissue/cells that lack differentiation.

27

What is cancer cachexia?

The loss of body fat, wasting and profound weakness during cancer

28

What is characteristic of a Stage IV cancer?

Advanced stage with distant metastasis

29

What is desmoplastic tissue?

Fibrous tissue made in response to neoplasm.

30

What is the action of Hypoxia Inducible Factor (HIF)?

It stimulates VEGF transcription.

31

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for chromogranin, bombesin or synaptophysin?

Neuro-endocrine.

32

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA)?

Epithelium.

33

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP)?

Glial cells

34

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for muscle specific antigen?

Muscle.

35

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP) or beta-hCG?

Germ cell tumour of the testes

36

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for S-100, melanin or HMB-45?

Melanocyte

37

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for thyroglobulin?

Thyroid follicle

38

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm that tests positive for vWF or CD31?

Blood vessel

39

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm with visible Birbeck granules?

Histiocyte

40

what is the appearance of Birbeck granules?


Birbeck Granules have a tennis racket appearance; Seen in Histiocytosis X

41

What is the cell type of origin for a neoplasm with visible Weibel Palade bodies?

Endothelium

42

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)?

Germ cell tumour of the testes or ovaries or live

43

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive for CD10 (CALLA)?

B cell lymphoblast

44

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive for desmin?

Muscle.

45

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive for Leukocyte Common Antigen (LCA)?

Leukocytes.

46

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive for vimentin?

Mesenchyme.

47

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm that tests positive keratin or cytokeratin?

Epithelium

48

What is the cell type of origin of a neoplasm with visible neuro-secretory granules?

Neuro-endocrine

49

What is the kappa:lambda ratio of immunoglobulin light chains in neoplastic B cells?

> 6:1 or 1:3

50

What is the most common carcinogen worldwide?

Cigarette smoke

51

What is the most common carcinogen worldwide?

Cigarette smoke

52

What is the most common cause of cancer incidence?

Breast/prostate

53

What is the most common cause of cancer mortality?

Lung cancer

54

What is the ratio of kappa:lambda immunoglobulin light chains in normal B-cells?

3:1

55

is the ratio of Iight:heavy chains maintained in hyperplasia?

yes

56

What is the second most important prognostic staging factor for cancer?

Spread to regional lymph nodes

57

What is the single most important prognostic staging factor of cancer?

Metastasis

58

Where do testicular tumours metastasize to?

Para-aortic lymph nodes

59

Where does breast cancer metastasize to?

Lung or bone

60

Where does prostate cancer metastasize to?

Bone

61

Where does Stomach adenocarcinoma metastasize to?

Virchow's left supraclavicular node

62

Which 2 angiogenic growth factors are commonly produced by tumour cells?

FGF; VEGF

63

Which 2 proteins expressed on the X-chromosome are often used to determine the clonality of new tissue growth?

G6PD; Androgen Receptor

64

Which agent secreted by small cell carcinoma of the lung can cause Lambert-Eaton syndrome as a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Autoantibodies against Ca channels at the NMJ

65

Which cancer is associated with Aflatoxins?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

66

Which cancer is associated with Alcohol?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx/upper esophagus; Hepatocellular carcinoma

67

Which cancer is associated with Alkylating Agents?

:Leukemia/lymphoma

68

Which cancer is associated with aromatic amines (e.g. benzidine; 2-naphthylamine)?

Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

69

Which cancer is associated with Arsenic?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; Lung cancer; Angiosarcoma of the liver

70

Which cancer is associated with Asbestos?

Lung cancer; Mesothelioma

71

is lung cancer or mesothelioma more likely following asbestos expsoure?

lung cancer

72

Which cancer is associated with Beryllium?

Lung carcinoma

73

Which cancer is associated with Chromium?

Lung carcinoma

74

Which cancer is associated with cigarette smoke?

Carcinoma of the oropharynx, esophagus, lung, kidney, bladder and pancreas

75

Which cancer is associated with Clonorchis sinensis (Liver fluke)?

Cholangiocarcinoma

76

Which cancer is associated with Helicobacter pylori?

Gastric adenocarinoma; MALT Lymphoma

77

Which cancer is associated with Naphthylamine?

Urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

78

Which cancer is associated with Nickel?

Lung carcinoma

79

Which cancer is associated with Nitrosamines?

Gastric carcinoma

80

Which cancer is associated with Radon?

Lung cancer; Radon is the 2nd leading cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoke.

81

Which cancer is associated with Schistosoma haematobium?

{{c1::Squamous cell carcinoma of the bladder}}

82

Which cancer is associated with Silica?

{{c1::Lung carcinoma}}

83

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP)?

Metastases to bone; Paget disease of bone; Seminoma (due to placental ALP)}}

84

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker CA-125?

Ovarian cancer

85

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker CA-27-29?

Breast cancer

86

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)?

Produced by ~70% of colorectal and pancreatic cancers

87

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker S-100?

Tumours of tissue with neural crest origin; Langerhans cell histiocytosis

88

what are tumors of neural crest origin?

melanoma, neural tumours, schwannomas

89

Which cancer is associated with the tumour marker Tartrate-Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP)?

Hairy cell leukemia;
"TRAP the hairy beast."

90

Which cancer is associated with Vinyl Chloride? (from PVC)

Angiosarcoma of the liver

91

Which cellular adhesion protein is often downregulated in cancer to allow for dissociation of attached cells and tumour invasion/spread?

E-cadherin

92

Which chromosomal translocation involving ABL causes CML or ALL?

t(9;22) with BCR

93

Which chromosomal translocation involving Bcl2 causes follicular lymphoma?

t(14;18) to the Ig heavy chain gene

94

Which chromosomal translocation involving c-MYC can cause Burkitt Lymphoma?

t(8;14) with Ig heavy chain

95

Which chromosomal translocation involving Cyclin D1 causes mantle cell lymphoma?

t(11;14) involving Ig heavy chain

96

Which cyclin-CDK complex functions to phosphorylate Rb bound to E2F?

CyclinD/CDK4

97

Which cytokine typically promotes cancer cachexia?

TNF-a

98

Which enzyme upregulated by cancer cells functions to degrade the basement membrane, thereby allowing for tumour invasion and spread?

Collagenase; Metalloproteinases

99

Which fungus is known to make Aflatoxins?

Aspergillus

100

Which hormone secreted by Hodgkin Lymphomas can cause Hypercalcemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Calcitriol

101

Which hormone secreted by Renal Cell Carcinoma can cause polycythemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Erythropoietin

102

Which hormone secreted by Renal Cell Carcinoma can cause polycythemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Erythropoietin

103

Which hormone secreted by Small Cell carcinoma of the lung can cause Cushing Syndrome?

ACTH

104

Which hormone secreted by small cell carcinoma of the lung can cause SIADH as a paraneolplastic syndrome?

ADH

105

Which hormone secreted by squamous cell carcinoma of the lung can cause hypercalcemia as a paraneoplastic syndrome?

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)

106

Which method of spread do most carcinomas employ for metastasis?

Lymphatic

107

Which MHC molecule is often downregulated in cancer so that tumour cells can evade immune surveillance?

MHC I

108

Which neoplasm is associated with acanthosis nigricans?

Visceral malignancy (especially gastric)

109

Which neoplasm is associated with Actinic Keratosis?

:Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

110

Which neoplasm is associated with autoimmune diseases?

Lymphoma

111

Which neoplasm is associated with Barrett Esophagus?

Esophageal adenocarcinoma

112

Which neoplasm is associated with chronic atrophic gastritis?

Gastric adenocarcinoma

113

Which neoplasm is associated with cirrhosis?

Hepatocellular carcinoma

114

Which neoplasm is associated with Cushing Syndrome?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

115

Which neoplasm is associated with Dermatomyositis?

Lung cancer

116

Which neoplasm is associated with Down Syndrome?

ALL; AML

117

Which neoplasm is associated with Dysplastic Nevus?

Malignant melanoma

118

Which neoplasm is associated with Hypercalcemia?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

119

Which neoplasm is associated with Lambert-Eaton syndrome?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

120

Which neoplasm is associated with Myashenia Gravis?

Thymoma

121

Which neoplasm is associated with Paget Disease of Bone?

:Secondary osteosarcoma; Fibrosarcoma

122

Which neoplasm is associated with pernicious anaemia?

Gastric adenocarcinoma

123

Which neoplasm is associated with Plummer-Vinson Syndrome (via Fe deficiency)?

Squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

124

Which neoplasm is associated with Polycythemia?

Renal cell carcinoma; Hepatocellular carcinoma

125

Which neoplasm is associated with postsurgical gastric remnants?

Gastric adenocarcinoma

126

Which neoplasm is associated with pure RBC aplasia?

Thymoma

127

Which neoplasm is associated with Tuberous Sclerosis?

Giant cell astrocytoma; Renal angiomyolipoma; Cardiac Rhabdomyoma

128

Which neoplasm is associated with Ulcerative Colitis?

Colonic adenocarcinoma

129

Which neoplasm is associated with Xeroderma Pigmentosum and Albinism?

Melanoma; Basal cell carcinoma; and especially Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin}

130

Which oncogenic virus is associated with Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma?

HTLV-1

131

Which oncogenic virus is associated with Burkitt Lymphoma and CNS Lymphoma in AIDS?

EBV

132

Which oncogenic virus is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma?

HCV; HBV

133

Which oncogenic virus is associated with Kaposi Sarcoma?

:HHV-8

134

Which oncogenic virus is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma?

EBV

135

Which primary tumour most commonly causes metastases to the brain?

Liver

136

where in the brain do most mets appear?

at the grey/white matter junction

137

Which primary tumour most commonly causes metastasis to the bone?

Prostate; breast

138

Which primary tumour most commonly causes metastasis to the liver?

Colon

139

Which protein is used to determine the clonality of B-cell proliferation?

Immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain

140

Which route of metastasis is characteristic of carcinomas?

Lymphatic

141

Which route of metastasis is characteristic of sarcomas?

Hematgenous

142

Which thyroid tumour is associated with RET point mutations?

:Sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

143

Which transition point in the cell cycle is regulated by p53?

G1 to S

144

Which transition point in the cell cycle is regulated by Rb (retinoblastoma protein)?

G1 to S

145

Which tumour is associated with ABL translocation [t(9;22)]?

CML

146

Which tumour is associated with BRAF mutation?

Melanoma

147

Which tumour is associated with c-KIT point mutations?

GI stromal tumour

148

Which tumour is associated with c-MYC translocation [t(8;14)]?

Burkitt lymphoma

149

Which tumour is associated with CDK4 amplification?

Melanoma

150

Which tumour is associated with Cyclin D1 translocation [t(11;14)]?

Mantle Cell lymphoma

151

Which tumour is associated with ERBB2 (HER2/neu) amplification?

Breast cancer

152

Which tumour is associated with L-MYC amplification?

Small cell carcinoma of the lung

153

Which tumour is associated with n-MYC amplification?

Neuroblastoma

154

Which tumour is associated with PDGF-B overexpression?

Astrocytoma

155

Which tumour is associated with RAS point mutations?

Carcinomas, melanoma and lymphoma

156

Which tumour is associated with RET point mutations?

MEN2A; MEN2B; Sporadic medullary carcinoma of the thyroid

157

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene APC?

Colorectal cancer (in FAP)

158

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene BRCA1?

Breast and ovarian cancer

159

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene BRCA2?

Breast and ovarian cancer

160

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene CPD4/SMAD4?

Pancreatic cancer

161

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene DCC?

Colon cancer

162

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene MEN1?

MEN type I

163

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene NF1?

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

164

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene NF1?

Neurofibromatosis Type 1

165

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene NF2?

Neurofibromatosis type 2

166

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene p16?

Melanoma

167

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene p53?

Most human cancers; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

168

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene PTEN?

:Breast cancer; prostate cancer; endometrial cancer

169

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene Rb?

Retinoblastoma; osteosarcoma

170

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene TSC1?

Tuberous sclerosis

171

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene TSC2?

Tuberous sclerosis

172

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene WT1?

Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma)

173

Which tumour is associated with the tumour suppressor gene WT2?

Wilms tumour (nephroblastoma)

174

Which type of collagen is found in the basement membrane?

Type IV

175

Which type of radiation is associated with AML?

Ionizing

176

Which type of radiation is associated with basal cell carcinoma of the skin?

Nonionizing

177

Which type of radiation is associated with CML?

Ionizing

178

Which type of radiation is associated with melanoma of the skin?

Nonionizing

179

Which type of radiation is associated with nuclear reactor accidents?

Ionizing

180

Which type of radiation is associated with papillary carcinoma of the Thyroid?

Ionizing

181

Which type of radiation is associated with Radiotherapy?

Ionizing

182

Which type of radiation is associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin?

Nonionizing

183

Which type of radiation is associated with the formation of pyrimidine dimers in DNA, which are normally excised by restriction endonucleases?

Nonionizing

184

Which type of radiation is associated with UVB sunlight?

Nonionizing

185

Which type of tissue is associated with GFAP?ssue is associated with Desmin?

Neuroglia

186

Which type of tissue is associated with the Chromogranin immunohistochemical stain?

Neuroendocrine cells (e.g. small cell carcinoma of the lung; carcinoid tumours)

187

Which type of tumour is associated with a high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio?

Malignant

188

Which type of tumour is associated with a low nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio?

Benign

189

(blank) is a phenomenon associated with cancer that involves seeding of the omentum by metastatic ovarian carcinoma.

omental caking

190

(blank) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with a visceral malignancy.

acanthosis nigricans

191

(blank) is a carcinogen derived from Aspergillus, a fungus that often contaminates rice, grains and peanuts.

Aflatoxin

192

(blank) s a type of cell growth that involves a loss of structural differentiation and function of cells, thereby resembling primitive cells of the same tissue.

:Anaplasia

193

(blank) is a protein upregulated by the tumour suppressor p53 that functions to disrupt Bcl2, thereby causing apoptosis.

BAX

194

a freely mobile tumor suggests.

benign

195

(blank) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with the EECs of the small intestine and Serotonin secretion.

Carcinoid syndrome

196

(blank) is a type of cell growth that involves fibrous tissue formation in response to neoplasm.

Desmoplasia

197

desmoplasia is seen as what presentation of diffuse stomach cancer?

linitis plastica

198

(blank) is a type of retinoblastoma that arises from a 2-hit mutation to Rb (1 germline, 1 somatic) and presents with bilateral retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma.

Familial Rb

199

(blank) is a para-neoplastic syndrome associated with bronchogenic carcinoma and a periostal reaction of the distal phalanges (with clubbing).

Hypertrophic osteoartropathy

200

(blank) is a malignant tumour of smooth muscle.

Leiomyosarcoma

201

(blank) is a tumour syndrome due to p53 mutation that is characterized by the propensity to develop multiple types of carcinomas and sarcomas.

Li-Fraumeni syndrome

202

(blank) are a type of carcinogen found in smoked foods that are responsible for the high rate of stomach cancer in Japan.

nitrosamiens

203

(blank) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by some cancer cells that functions to pump out toxins from the cell, including chemotherapeutic agents.

P-glycoprotein

204

(blank) is a tummour suppressor gene that codes for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A.

p16

205

(blank) is a tumour suppressor gene that upregulates BAX if DNA damage cannot be repaired.

p53

206

(blank) is a screening method that detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) before it becomes cancerous.

pap smear

207

(blank) are a chemical found in cigarette smoke that is particularly carcinogenic.

polycyclic hydrocarbons

208

(blank) is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with renal cell carcinoma and EPO secretion.

Polycythemia

209

(blank) are laminated, concentric, calcific spherules often seen in some cancers.

Psamomma bodies

210

(blank) is a tumour suppressor protein that "holds" the E2F transcription factor needed for the transition into S-phase.

Rb

211

(blank) is a malignant tumour of striated muscle.

Rhabdomyosarcoma

212

(blank) is a malignant tumour of striated muscle.

Rhabdomyosarcoma

213

(blank), or Migratory Thrombophlebitis, is a paraneoplastic syndrome associated with pancreatic carcinoma and the activation of clotting factors.

Trousseau syndrome

214

(blank) is a type of retinoblastoma that results from 2 sporadic (both somatic) mutations in Rb.

unilateral Rb

215

(blank) is a tumour suppressor gene associated with von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome that inhibits hypoxia inducible factor 1a.

VHL