Ch 3: The Federal System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 3: The Federal System Deck (35):
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Federal system

National and state governments share power; both get power from people

1

Confederation

National government gets powerful states

2

Unitary system

State and local governments get power from national government

3

Enumerated powers

Powers listed in article 1 section 8 of the Constitution

4

Implied powers

Powers gotten from the necessary and proper clause, article 1 section 8 clause 18

5

10th amendment

Powers not granted to the national government go to the states or the people

6

Reserved powers

Powers reserved to the states through the 10th amendment

7

Concurrent powers

Powers shared by the national and state government's

8

Bill of attainder

A law declaring an act illegal without a judicial trial

9

Ex post facto law

A law that makes an act illegal even if it was legal at the time it was committed

10

Full faith and credit clause

Article 4-ensues judicial decrees and contracts made in one state will be binding and enforceable in any state

11

Privileges and immunities clause

Article 4-every citizen has the same rights regardless of the state they live in

12

Extradition clause

Article 4-requires states to return criminals to the state where they had been convicted

13

Interstate compacts

Contracts between states that carry the force of law

14

Dillon's rule

All local governments do not have inherent sovereignty and must be authorized by state governments; state governments can create or destroy them

15

Charter

A document that specifies the basic policies procedures and institutions of the local government

16

County

Basic administrative unit of local government

17

Municipality

City governments created in response to the emergence of relatively densely populated areas

18

Special district

Local government that is restricted to a particular function

19

McCulloch v. Maryland

Grants Congress implied powers for implementing the constitutions express powers

20

Gibbons v. Ogden

Commerce clause designated power to Congress to regulate interstate commerce

21

Baron v. Baltimore

State governments are not bound by the fifth amendments requirement for just compensation cases of eminent domain

22

Dual federalism

Believe that having separate and equally powerful levels of government is the best arrangement; layer cake federalism

23

Nullification

The right of the state to declare void a federal law

24

Dred Scott v. Sandford

African-Americans, slaves or free, aren't citizens and therefore can't sue in federal court

25

16th amendment

Congress can enact a national income tax

26

17th amendment

Direct election of Senators

27

Cooperative federalism

Intertwined relationship between the national, state, and local government's; marble cake federalism

28

New deal

FDR's way of combatting the Great Depression

29

Categorical grant

Grants given by Congress for specific things

30

New federalism

The return of power to the states; started by Reagan in the 1980s

31

Block Grant

Grants given by Congress with general spending guidelines

32

Programmatic requests

Federal funds designated for special projects within a state or congressional District

33

Preemption

Allows national government to override state and local actions and certain policy areas

34

Progressive federalism

Views relations between national and state governments as coercive and cooperative