Ch 5: Civil Rights Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 5: Civil Rights Deck (23):
1

civil rights

the government protected rights of individuals against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by governments or individuals

2

13th amendment

banned slavery in the US

3

black codes

laws denying most legal rights to newly freed slaves: southern states after the civil war

4

14th amendment

guarantees equal protection and due process of the law to all US citizens

5

equal protection clause

14th amendment, guarantees all citizens equal protection

6

15th amendment

newly freed male slaves can vote

7

jim crow laws

laws enacted by southern states that required segregation in public buildings

8

civil rights cases (1883)

five supreme court cases brought under the civil rights act of 1875; discrimination in a variety of public accommodations could not be prohibited by the act because such discrimination was private, not state, discrimination

9

poll tax

tax levied in many southern states that had to be paid before an eligible voter could cast a ballot

10

gandfather clause

southern states; if your grandfather could not vote you cant either unless you could pass a wealth or literacy test

11

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

separate but equal accommodations did no violate the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment

12

suffrage movement

the drive for voting rights for women in the US between 1890 and 1920

13

19th amendment

gave women the right to vote

14

Brown v. Board of Ed (1954)

overturns ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson; segregation in schools is unconstitutional because it violates the equal protection clause in the 14th amendment

15

Civil Rights Act of 1964

outlawed segregation in public buildings, and discrimination in employment, education, and voting

16

de jure segregation

racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy

17

de facto segregation

racial discrimination that results from practice rather than the law

18

Equal Rights Amendment

proposed amendment that states "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the US or any state on the account of sex

19

suspect classification

category or class that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from the supreme court

20

strict scrutiny

a heightened standard of review used by the supreme court to determine the constitutional validity of a challenged practice

21

Equal Pay Act of 1963

men and women deserve equal pay for equal work

22

title IX

bars educational institutions that receive federal funds from discriminating against female students

23

affirmative action

policies to give special attention or compensatory treatment to members of a previously disadvantaged group